Реферат: The Khabarovsk Territory
BRANCHES of the ECONOMY
Fuel and Energy Complex
The Territory produces 9,23 billion kWhr of electric power which covers 95% of the Territory's demand.The rest of the electric power comes from the Amurskaya Region and the Primorski Territory since the power system of the Territory is integrated through Power Line 220-500 kW into the Interconnected Power System of the East. Practically all the industrial centers of the Therritori in its southern and near-northern parts are connected to the power network of the Interconnected Power System "Vostok-energo".Only Nikolaevsk heat electric generation plant operates in an isolated mode. Separate consumers in the northern areas of the Territory are supplied with electric power from the out-of-system small diesel power stations.
The installed power of the 109 power station of the Territory are nearly 2000 MW , 95 % of which belongs to heat-electric generation plants located in industrial centres.
The largest power stations in the Territory are the Khabarovsk Heat-Electric Generating Station -3 (HEGS-3) (540 MW), the Khabarovsk HEGS -1 (462 MW) , Amurskaya HEGS (285 MW) and Komsomolsk-on-Amur HEGS -1 (275 MW) .
At present the Urgal black coal deposit is developed in the Territory . The productivity of the Urgal mine amounts to 2,4 mln tons of coal per year. Because of the specific features of using the coal mined, and the established practice of fuel supply , 70 % of the Urgal coal output is supplied to Magadan and Sakhalin Regions . At the same time up to 7 mln tons of coal from Yakutiya , Transbaikal , Amurskaya and other regions of Russia are imported annually to the Therritory .
Natural gas for energy needs and ferrous metallurgy of Komso - molsk-on-Amur industrial region is delivered by gas pipe line from Sakhalin .
Oil processing industry of the Far-Eastern Economic Region is concentrated in the Territory and is represented by the Komsomolsk- on-Amur and Khabarovsk Oil Refineries . These refineries satisfy over 50 % of the Far East demand and run on the oil imported to the Territory (9,8 mln tons per year) . About 20 % of the oil comes from Sakhalin oil fields by oil pipe line , while 80 % is delivered by railway from Siberia.
At present time works on implementation of wind energy development programme are under way in the Territory . This is the only one in the Far East wind energy assembling base for wind energy installations of various capacity .
Machine-building enterprises manufacture ocean and river ves- sels , aircrafts , diesel engines and diesel generators , metal cutting tools , power engineering and casting machines , cable products , electric travelling cranes , processing equipment for fish industry and consumer goods . The Khabarovsk Territory accounts for 27 % of the gross Russian output of electric travelling cranes , 1,8 % of diesel engines . Characteristic features of the branch are unsufficient develop - ment of accessory manufactures , poor cooperation between the local producers , orientation of the enterprises to manufacturing products intended to be used outside the Far-Eastern region . Up to 80 % of machine-building products are exported to the European part of the country and abroad , while the bulk of units , parts and accessory components are imported from the other areas of the country .
Specificity of the machine-building of the Territory consists in its being a highly developed military-industrial complex comprising large - scale aircraft - and ship-building works .
New tasks now facing the machine-building industry of the Territory are namely those of its re-orientation to satisfy the needs of local economy and the people living here .
The only metallurgical work in the Far East is "Amurstal" Works (Komsomolsk-on-Amur), with the annual capacity about 2 mln tons of rolled stock . The main product is steel sheets (57 %) . At the same time the kinds and type of metal products non-productive in the Territory are imported from the other areas of the country .
The primary material processed at the "Amurstal" Works is scrap metal which is supplied by the far-eastern enterprises . Other kinds of raw materials for steel-making are supplied from Siberia and the Urals .
The Khabarovsk Territory has a developed civil engineering which promotes functioning and development of indusrial , agricultural and social sectors of economy . About 4 % of the fixed assets of the industrial enterprises are concetrated in civil engineering .
The largest construction associations in the Therritory are ; "Dalstroi"(civil and industrial engineering),corporation "Rosenergostroi", "Transstroi","Montazhspetsstroi","Rosavtodor" .
In addition, industrial and agricultural enterprises carry out individually 7 % of all construction work done annually in the Therritory .
Engineering complex has strong enough productive capacities available which comprise highly mechanized works producing struc - tures and parts of dwelling and industrial houses , basic construction materials .
In 1992 over 700,000 cubic metres of prefabricated reinforced concrete structures , 113 mln pcs of bricks , 830 thd cu.m of fractionated road material 218 thd cu.m of gravel ,626 thd cu.m of joinery (windows, doors),98 mln sq.m of ruberoid and other construction materials were produced in the Therritory .Capacities of construction industry enter - prises allow to increase production output by 25-30 % per year .
Besides traditional types of construction materials highly effec - tive basalt fibre is being produced ,linoleum production is being organized in Amursk , the cardboard ruberoid plant is planning to produce a new kind of roofing material - tile , made of bitumen base , for cottage building .
TRANSPORT and COMMUNICATION
Being one of the key branches of the economic complex of the Khabarovsk Territory , transport is represented by all kinds thereof .
There are two railway arteries crossing the Territory - the Trans - Siberian Railway and Baikal-Amur Mainline - which connect the eastern and western parts of the country . The continental network and that of the island of Sakhalin are linked by a sea-going ferry Vanino - Kholmsk (270 km long) .
The total railway length , one way approaches to the mainlines including , is 2,3 thd km or over 1/4 of the total Far-Eastern road network length . Over 80 % of the territorial cargo exchange with the other regions of the country and 72 % of the intraregional cargo freights are carried out by rail . Every year about 20 mln tons of varios commercial cargo are delivered and backhauled to the sea ports and the
China border stations . modernization of the single railroad bridge across the Amur river near Khabarovsk (2617 m long) , which is the last one way section of the Trans-Siberian Railway , is under way .
The total length of the navigable inner waterays in the Territory is 3,2 thd km (rivers Amur,Ussuri,Amgun,Tungusska,Maya).
The major part of cargo turnover is done by large ports of Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
Mixed river-sea-going ships carry cargo by direct waterways from the Amur river ports to the north of the Territory and to the
Sakhalin and Amurskaya Regions,and to the seashore destination points in the Primorski Territory and the Magadan Region .
The Amur river has also turned out to be a large international transportation artery . In 1992 the ships of the Amur Shipping Company carried to and backhauled from the Japanese ports 314 thd tons of commercial cargo , to and from the Chinese ports-78 thd tons , and to and from the Korean ports-40 thd tons.The Company's vessels carry sand,timber,fertilizers and construction material for export , while equipment and machinery,refrigerating chambers,consumer goods and foodstuffs are brought back as import goods .
The Amur Sipping Company has recently expanded the geography of its outward voyages . The ports of Poyarcovo,Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur and the port station of Nizhneleninskoye have been additionally opened to be visited by the Chinese ships, while the Chinese side has opened the ports of Cene,Fuijin,Jiamusi,Harbin .
The mixed river-sea-going ships belonging to the Amur Shipping Company have blazed new trails to Shanghhai,Singapore,Hong-Kong as well as to the South-Korean ports of Pusan and Inchon.In future it is planed to arrange through traffic of commercial cargo from Japan and the Republic of Korea to the North - Eastern China using waterways of the Amur and Sungary to this end.A boat trip for foreign tourists and businessmen from Khabarovsk down to the mouth of the Amur river (the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur ) is also to be provided for .
The main sea-port of the Khabarovsk Territory is the port of Vanino .
As for the cargo turnover (exceeding annually 10 mln tons) the port Vanino takes the third place among the sea-ports of the Russian Far East . Every year 3,5 thd ships and 170 thd railway cars are processed at the port . In the port there is a complex of loading on processing large capacity contaners - 500 thd t annually . The sea railway ferry Vanino- Kholmsk is a part of Vanino port .The year round operation of the port is ensured by the ice-breaker fleet . Construction of the transshipment centre to handle vessels of Ro-Ro type using horizontal handing techniques for transhipping operations is to enable an increased carrying capacity of Vanino port up to 12 mln tons .
At present realization of a large project to significantly expand the ca - pacities up to 30 mln tons and modernize the port as well as to accelerate economic development of the areas adjacent to the port has been started .
Other ports in the Territory are in Nikolaevsk - on - Amur ,Okhotsk , Lazarevo and De-Kastry . A new commercial port has been opened in Sovetskaya Gavan in 1993 .
There are 38 airports in the Territory , 36 whereof being those of local service air lines including 6 airports with paved year round runways and 31 airports with natural serviced runways , 21 airports thereof are intended to receive only the airplanes of AN - type and helicopters .
Aircrafts of the Far-Eastern Corporation of Civil Aviation carry over 2 mln passengers and about 30 thd tons of cargo a year .
Air transportation at domestic air-lines is primarily carried out through the main airport of the Territory - the Khabarovsk airport located 10 km away from the city . The routes come therefrom to link the city with more than 40 cities of Russia and CIS countres . The Khabarovsk Airport is the leading airport of international travel in the Russian Far East . It is connected by scheduled flights with Harbin (China),Seoul (Korea),Ancorage and San-Francisco (USA),Niigata (Japan),Pyongyang (PDRK). At present the opening of a number of international flights is being studied .
Motor Transport and Roads
The general purpose motor transport of the Territory carry annually about 13,1 mln tons of cargo and over 260 mln of passengers .
There are 21 motor transport enterprises including 6 passenger enterprises integrated into Association "Khabarovskavtotrans."
The network of motor road is weakly developed and is concen - trated primarily in the soutern are of the Territory . The cities of Sovetskaya Gavan and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur have no motor road connection with territorial centre - Khabarovsk . The total length of motor roads is 12,2 thd km , including 6,6 thd km of inner secondary roads .
The length of general purpose motor roads is 4,3 thd km , including 3,2 thd km of hard-surface roads . Main trunk roads include : the roads of federalsignificance - "Amur" (Chita-Khabarovsk) and "Ussuri" (Khabarovsk-Vladivostok) and Khabarovsk- -Komsomolsk-on-Amur with bridge crossing Amur river near Komsomolsk,and Khabarovsk-Birobidzhan .
The main types of communication in the Khabarovsk Therritory are mail,and telephone communication . Telex and telefax are now widely used . It is planned to establish a centre of international communication in Khabarovsk .
Stations of international satellite communication : Russian- American joint venture "Daltelecom-International" , Russia - Japan joint venture "Vostoktelecom" and join-stock company "Vostok- Infocosmos" with going out for Korea,Japan,China and other countries have been put into service .
In 1993-1995 an automatic telephone station for 41 thd customer telephone numbers is to be put into service . The number of telephones per 100 families in cities is 30,2 , in the countryside - 23,7 .
TV broadcasting will be further developed in the Therritory . TV broadcasting (three and more) programmes make up 69,6 % .