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Modal verbs
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: : Modal verbs

We can compare May and Can
Must and May compared
Must, to have to and to be to compared
Must, Should and ought to compared
Should + Perfect inind-nitive, ought to + Perfect
Inind-nitive and was/were to + Perfect Inind-nitive
Shouldnt + Perfect Inind-nitive, oughtnt to + Perfect
Inind-nitive and neednt + Perfect Inind-nitive


1. : . , , . -., 1999.
2. . . . .
3. Learn to read science. .. . , 1980.
4. The English verb. A new grammar for every one. .. , .. . , 1997.
5. Modality in Modern English. .. . ., 1968.
6. . .. .
7. . .. . ., 1959.
8. . .. . . , 1974.
9. : . .. . ., , 1986.
10. . .. , .. . ., 1987.
11. . .. . ., , 1975.
12. . .. . ., 1959.
13. . .. . ., 1977.
14. . .. . ., 1979.
15. . .. . ., 1961.
16. . .. . ., 1960.
17. - . .. , .. . ., 1986.
18. . .. . ., 1990.
19. . .. , .. . ., 1968.


1.The time machine. Herbert G. Wells.
2.The Painted Veil. W. Somerset Maugham.
3.His Last Bow. Arthur Conan Doyle.
4. The Fun They Had. I. Asimov.
5. The Green Door. O. Henry.
6. The Ice Palace. F. Scott ind-tzgerald.
7. Donkey. A. Marshall.
8. Essential English. C. Eckersley.
9. You Should Have Seen the Mess. M. Spark.
10. The Witness For The Prosecution. A. Christie.
11. The Portrait of Dorian Gray. O. Wilde.
12. Ruthless. W. De Mille.
13. The Birthday Present. B.J. Chute.
14. The Bear. W. Faulkner.
15. Evelyne. J. Joyce.
16. The Cat in the Rain. E. Hemingway.
1. Morning Star;
2. Moscow News;
3. Daily Worker.
: Modality is expression of speakers attitude to what his utterance denotes.
The speakers judgment may be of different kinds, that is, the speaker may express various modal meanings. Modal verbs unlike other verbs, do not denote actions or states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the inind-nitive in combination with which they form compound modal predicates. These modal verbs may show that the action (or state, of process, or quality) is viewed by the speaker as possible, obligatory, doubtful, certain, permissible, advisable, requested, prohibited, ordered etc. Modal verbs occur only with the inind-nitive. This or that meaning is to a great degree determined by communicative type of the sentence and the form of the inind-nitive. That is a huge problem for foreign learners of English, who make a great deal of mistakes in this ind-eld. So, the aim of my work is to show how modal verbs can be used, in what case we need one or other verb and why.
English modality can be expressed not only by modal verbs. Modality can be expressed by different linguistic means. In actual speech all forms expressing modality work together to make the meaning clear. But in every case there is some leading form that expresses the main attitude. These forms fall into four categories: phonetic (intonation), grammatical (mood), lexico-grammatical (modal verbs), lexical (modal words and phrases). But the most important from them is the third form, which includes modal verbs. It is important to take into account one more feature peculiar to modal verbs. They all show that a certain action is represented as necessary, doubtful, etc. From the point of view of the speake, there are verbs which help other verbs to express a meaning: it is important to realize that modal verbs have no meaning by themselves/ A modal verb such as would has several varying functions; it can be used, for example, to help verbs express ideas about the past, the present and the future. It is therefore wrong to simply believe that would is the past of will: it is many other things.
English modality can be expressed not only by modal verbs. There are many ways to express it generally Mood shows the relation between the action expressed by the predicate verb and reality. The speaker establishes this relation.
In present-day English the category of mood is made up by a set of forms opposed to each other in presenting the event described as a real fact, a problematic action of as something unreal that does not exist.
Actions represented as real facts are expressed by the Indicative Mood.

E.g. Architects have done some very good work, too, in designing new schools. Many of these are prefabricated, which means that as much of the building work as possible if done not on the building site but in factories where mass production methods are used.
When the brothers had gone home, Mr. Waterfall announced that they were a much pleasanter pair of young men than the had been led to believe.
The Indicative mood is characterized by a great number of tense-aspect-phase forms that may be used in the Active or in the Passive Voice. It should be stressed that the use of the Indicative Mood does not always mean that the action expressed by the predicate verb is true to fact, that it actually takes (or took, or will take) place in reality. When the speaker uses the Indicative Mood he merely represents an action as a fact, but he maybe mistaken or even telling a lie.

E.g. It cant be true. ( . .)

In this meaning can is found only in negative sentences, which are often emotionally colored. Depending on the time reference, this can is also used with different forms of the inind-nitive/
E.g. He cant be really ill.
She cant be telling lies.
He cant have said it.
She cant have been at home all this time.
She cant have been waiting for us so long.

Could is also used in this way making the statement less categorical
E.g. It couldnt be true.
She couldnt be telling lies.
He couldnt have said it.
She couldnt have been at home all this time.
She couldnt have been waiting for us so long.

Can and could followed by different forms of the inind-nitive, are found in special questions where they are used for emotional coloring (to express puzzlement, impatience, etc.).
E.g. What can (could) he mean?
What can (could) he be doing?
What can (could) he have done?
Where can (could) he have gone to?
It can be rendered in Russian as: , , ?

As is seen from the above examples, the form could referring to present is sometimes clearly opposed to can in that it expresses unreality whereas can expresses reality. This may be observed in the following meanings:
ability He can speak English. He could speak English if necessary.
possibility due to circumstances You can get the book from the library. You could get the book from the library if necessary. E.g. You can have a million books on our television screen, and even more. There is nothing to throw away. (I. Asimov)
How could a man be a teacher? (I. Asimov)

In the other meanings, however, this difference between the two forms is obliterated. Could is used either as a milder or mote polite form of can as a form implying more uncertainty than can:
permission Can I use your pen? Could I use your pen? (more polite)
uncertainty, doubt, improbability Can it be true? Could it be true (less certain). It cant be true. It couldnt be true (less certain).

We can also ind-nd some examples of modal verbs usage in some newspapers , magazines or in literature.
E.g. It could be true but it is advisable to ind-nd out ind-rst what has really happened there. ( , , , .)
Honey, you couldnt support a wife, she answered cheerfully. Anyway, I know you too well to fall in love with you. (F. Scott ind-tzgerald)
In this case the verb could is used here in the meaning of doubt, uncertainty and improbability.