Информация о готовой работе
|Тема||English modal verbs|
|Год сдачи в учебное заведение:||2004 г.|
|Объем работы:||52 стр.|
|Содержание:||Заданная тема диплома: English modal verbs|
MODAL VERBS 7
We can compare May and Can 24
Must and May compared 28
TO HAVE TO 29
TO BE TO 31
Must, to have to and to be to
OUGHT TO 34
SHALL AND SHOULD 35
Must, Should and ought to compared 41
Should + Perfect inind-nitive, ought to + Perfect
Inind-nitive and was/were to + Perfect Inind-nitive
Shouldn’t + Perfect Inind-nitive, oughtn’t to + Perfect
Inind-nitive and needn’t + Perfect Inind-nitive compared
ind-nal conclusion 50
Modality is expression of speaker’s attitude to what his utterance denotes.|
The speaker’s judgment may be of different kinds, that is, the speaker may express various modal meanings. Modal verbs unlike other verbs, do not denote actions or states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the inind-nitive in combination with which they form compound modal predicates. These modal verbs may show that the action (or state, of process, or quality) is viewed by the speaker as possible, obligatory, doubtful, certain, permissible, advisable, requested, prohibited, ordered etc. Modal verbs occur only with the inind-nitive. This or that meaning is to a great degree determined by communicative type of the sentence and the form of the inind-nitive. That is a huge problem for foreign learners of English, who make a great deal of mistakes in this ind-eld. So, the aim of my work is to show how modal verbs can be used, in what case we need one or other verb and why.
English modality can be expressed not only by modal verbs. Modality can be expressed by different linguistic means. In actual speech all forms expressing modality work together to make the meaning clear. But in every case there is some leading form that expresses the main attitude. These forms fall into four categories: phonetic (intonation), grammatical (mood), lexico-grammatical (modal verbs), lexical (modal words and phrases). But the most important from them is the third form, which includes modal verbs. It is important to take into account one more feature peculiar to modal verbs. They all show that a certain action is represented as necessary, doubtful, etc. From the point of view of the speake, there are verbs which ‘help’ other verbs to express a meaning: it is important to realize that “modal verbs” have no meaning by themselves/ A modal verb such as would has several varying functions; it can be used, for example, to help verbs express ideas about the past, the present and the future. It is therefore wrong to simply believe that “would is the past of will”: it is many other things.
English modality can be expressed not only by modal verbs. There are many ways to express it – generally Mood shows the relation between the action expressed by the predicate verb and reality. The speaker establishes this relation.
In present-day English the category of mood is made up by a set of forms opposed to each other in presenting the event described as a real fact, a problematic action of as something unreal that does not exist.
Actions represented as real facts are expressed by the Indicative Mood.
We ind-nd the following modal verbs in English: can, may, must, ought, shall, should, will, need and dare. Besides, to have and to be in some of their uses are also classed among modal verbs. A modal verb in combination with the inind-nitive forms a modal compound predicate.
Modal verbs are defective verbs since they lack many forms characteristic of regular verbs: they have no –s in the third person singular in the present tense and no verbal, so they have no analytical forms; some of them lack the form of the past tense.
Modal verbs have the following peculiarities:
1) they are followed by the inind-nitive without the particle to (with the exception of ought, to have and to be);
2) their interrogative and negative forms are built up without the auxiliary do.
Most of the verbs have more than one meaning. Each of their meanings is characterized by a speciind-c usage.
1) Some of the meanings may be found in all kinds of sentences; others occur only in afind-rmative of interrogative or negative sentences;
2) Different meanings may be associated with different forms of the inind-nitive – simple and perfect (both in the active and passive forms), continuous and perfect continuous;
3) If the modal verbs have more than one form (can – could, may – might, will – would, also the verbs to have and to be), their different meanings are not necessarily found in all those forms.
The use of modal verbs is in most cases independent of the structure of the sentence: the use of this of that modal verb is determined by the attitude of the speaker towards the facts contained in the sentence. In this case we may speak of the free or independent use of modal verbs.
E. g. He admires you. He thinks you’re a little beauty. Perhaps I oughtn’t to have told you that.
He may be in the hall now, waiting for me.
But sometimes the use of certain modal verbs depends on the structure of the sentence, mainly on the type of the subordinate clause, and occasionally also on the lexical character of the predicate verb in the principal clause. This may be called the structurally dependent use of modal verbs.
E. g. It is obviously necessary that an investigation should be made.
Christine feared she might not be met at all.
When the use of modal verbs is structurally dependent, their meaning is sometimes weakened; in fact, it may be quite vague. This may be accounted for by the fact that these verbs become rather part of the structure than bearers of individual meaning.
It is important to take into account one more feature peculiar to modal verbs. They all show that a certain action is represented as necessary, possible, desirable, doubtful, etc. from the point of view of the speaker. Consequently, modal verbs are generally used in conversation. In past-time contexts they may be found only in reported speech or thought, Thus You should have done it before, or He might be wrong, or It must be true cannot be possibly found in narration unless they are used after He thought that … He said that … He knew that …, etc.