-P  "P"  ѡԫ ѡ
pѡ  ߻ѵѮ 

Ҫߴ p  ԫ pԿ  Ҭ  p᡿ᵿ p߫
ѡ, pѡ, pԬ  p pᵿ  ߻᡿Ѽ .
ߴ pѽѡ pᵿ ա  ߫һԿ  ԫ 
p p᡿ᵿ pᵿ p߫. pԬ ߴ
ԫp߬ ߻Ѭ 󫺡ѡ pᵿ ա.  ԫ 󴺿
pߴ ߡ  pԿ pᵿ ա 
ա߬ p  p὿ᵿ  pѮ޿ pѼѡ  ڿ Ѯ ("
  p").
ūpߴ, ԫ p ߴ p, 󫽴ڿ p὿
 pᵿ ա, ѡ Խڿߴ  pѪ
pѼ ԫԿᵿ  ѽѬ὿ᵿ pᵿ p߫.
ߴ pԬ ppԿ ߡ pѡ pԿ:
- ppԬ  ߻ѵᵿ ѽѮ p߫  ѡ p p 
ѡ   pᵿ  ᬫpԴ  󫺡ѡ  pԿ;
- pԼᵿ  ppἼp᡿ ѽѮ   ppᵿ  p
;
- p᡿ᵿ ߽ѽ  ᵿ ݬ߻pѡ  ѽ;
- p᡿ᵿ ѽѬ pԡ-pѡԿpᡡ pѮ
ѽ  ppԿpүѮ p ;
- p᡿ᵿ  pҬp p pᵿ  ѡټ һ
 ߡ ѻ Ԭp ߿Ѽ;
- p᡿ᵿ p߫ pѡ  ߬ pᵿ  ߡ ѻ
 ᡡ;
- ߫᡿  pᵿ ա  ߡ ѻ
߬ѡ ѽѬ.
pߴ Ὣ Ѫ pᵿټ  pټ ppἿ. 
ԫ ߡ ppߴ p᡿ p  ѡ pᵿ
pp߫  ߫pѼѡ .
Ļpѽߴ ߡ ѽ ỿ᡿ :  ԫ  pѡ
 p᡿ᵿ pᵿ p ա,  ( ԫ )
pp  ѽ  ߫ѡٮ   p p  
p, ԫpү   ừ pᵿټ ߫p᡿Ѽ  pẽ
pԡ pѡᵿ, Կ ѽ᡿ ߼p  pٮ pҪڿ
 p pѺ p p.
 1. P P  
  ߴ Կ pᵿ  ѡ p, ߴ
 ѡ pѽѡ pᵿ p, pѽѮ
 pᵿ. P߼pߴ ѽ ߻Ѭ ѫp pᵿ
    p᡿ᵿѮ , ߴ Կ p pѡ
pᵿ.
1.1. pᵿ  ѡ p
ߴ  ppԿ p߫, ᡡ  ѡѼ, pѡѼ,
pѮ  pԬ pᵿ. ūߴ, ԫ  ᬫ
pԬ pᵿ  ߿Ѽ pẽ pp (pѡ,
߬, ݬ߬, ߫  ..) ߴ ҡѡ
ߡ ѫp pᵿ  p߫.
Ҫߴ pẽ pѽѡ Կ "pᵿ", ᡡ  
pѼ p  ߽ᮡԿ, ߫߬ ߻Ѭ ݬ߻pѡ
߽᡿, իڿ  ݡp p pݡ, 
pᵿ  ߬ pἿ, pẽ ppᵿ ԫ Կ
( , pἿ, տ  ..).
pߴ ѡ ߿ѼԿᵿ pᵿ p߫ (pѡ,
ݬ߻pѡ ߽᡿, p ߫ѡ   󴺿,
ѽp᡿, Ҽᬽѡ), Ҫߴ pѼ pѡ pᵿ,
ѡԿ  pѼѡԿ  ѡ.
1.2. ѡ  ѫp pᵿ
ߴ Կ ѡ p pᵿ ( ѡ). ūߴ
ߡ  ԫ p  pѼ p (pԿ pѡ).  ԫ
ߡ Ҫߴ Կ ݡp  p pp ѫpѽѡԿ
ԡ߿ѽ ԫ pᵿ.
ߴ 񿡿 pѡ pᵿ ()  Ҫߴ p
ppᵿ Կ ݡp   񽿡 ݽѼѡ pѡ
pᵿ  ἴԿ . pԬ ppߴ pԼ߬ ѫp
pᵿ, ߡᡡ ..諽pټ,  p ѻ ѡ
pѡѽ  ᡿  Ѭԫ.
ߴ  ppԿ p ի  pѽѡ pᵿ
p, pߴ  ߫ѡ   ԫ ߡ  Ҫߴ 
 ԿԿ pᵿ.
ߴ Կ տ, Ҫߴ   (Ҽ, pޡԿ, ,
޿)  ڿ ᬫpԿ 󽿴    Ѽ
pᵿ.
Ҫߴ ߻Ѭ pҬԿԿ ѫp pᵿ  ѼԿ߬
Ҭ. p ԫ ߴ pѡ, ԫ ѫp pᵿ  
ߡ pѺҽԫ 󫽴 p ѡ ѡ 󫺼Ѯ
p߫ ѡ pᵿ.
( ѼԿ߬ Կ, ߻Ѽ  ԫ pѽ, Ҫߴ 
p p,  pүѼ ߻ѵ ᡿  ѫp pԡѮ 
ѼԿ߬ ԿԿ).
1.3. p pѡ pᵿ
p pѡ pᵿ ppԿpߴ  ߿Ѽ pҿp᡿
pᵿ pẫ Ѭԫ p p (߿Ѽ p᡿
pᵿ). P߼pߴ pẽ p pѡ pᵿ:
߿, Կ߬, , p߬. ūߴ, ԫ
 p  ߿Ѽ p᡿ ppߴ ὿Ѽ ߡ
(, Ѻp, ߻Ѭp ԡԿ, ߿Ѽ p, ߡ᡿ ߿Ѽ
߽ѡ  ..)  p  pҿp᡿ pᵿ pẫ  ԫ
ߡ.
 Կ  pԬ p߼pߴ pẽ p pѡ
pᵿ:
- ߿Ѽ ߽ѡ  pѡ ѽ;
- ٬ ppἼp᡿  p ߿Ѽ ᡿  -
  Ѭԫ, , pѡ;
- p, Ѽ, Ἷ߬ pp (pѬԫp), ԫ-
  pἼ, pҡ.
Ҫߴ 󫺼Կ pѡ 񡫮  ԫ  pᵿ  pẽ
p  Կpߴ ѫի񿼫 p ߫
߻Ѽ pᵿ p  ѼԿ߬ ߻Ѭ pѼ
pᵿ.
1.4.  pѫpẫ᡿ pᵿ
Ҫߴ ߡ  ҡ pѫpẫ᡿ pᵿ  񡫮 p
 pү  ѽѮ pѡ pᵿ  ἴԿ , p᡿,
޿p᡿  ڿ  pᵿ, ߪԿ pᵿ (߫pѡ
ԫԿ), ߬  pԿ ߻pԿ pᵿ.
p ԫ ߻үߴ Կ pԿ  ѫpԿ pѫpẫ᡿,
pᵿ p  ѼԿ pᵿ p. ߴ
߫ ѼԿ  p߬ ݡp ᡿ Ѭ.
 pp pԿ pѫpẫ᡿ (pѡp᡿/pp᡿,
p pѫpẫ᡿, ߻Ѭpٮ ὿) Ҫߴ Կ
pԿԿ p  pѼ ٴѡ ߬p ᬫpѮ 
pᵿ p Ѭ Ѽ p Ѭԡ p 
pѡ.
ǬѡԿpߴ p ޿  pԿ pѫpẫ᡿ pᵿ, ߻߫
pԿ    p ( pp p  pԡ p
Ѭ).
 ᬽѡ Ҫߴ pѡ, ԫ p pѫpẫ᡿ pᵿ
 p߼pߴ  p, ߫ڿ ѼԿ߬ ү pᵿ.
 Կ  p߼pߴ Ѭԫp pp, ԡߴڿߴ  ԿԿ,
Կ, ݬpừ.
 2. -PP  Pf  P.
  ߴ ߡ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի 
pѡ pᵿ  . Ҫߴ p pѡ Ѭԫ
 ἴԿ , pp᡿ Կ, ѡԿᵿ  ppᵿ
Ѭԫ, p߼pߴ ѻ p  Կ Ѭ (Ѭ-
ԫp), ޿p ߻Ѽ   ᵿ ѽp᡿.
(꺽ѡ ߴ  ߻᡿Ѽ p߬ ᵿ, Ὣ
pԼ߬ ٬-߬Ὣ (߬,ҽ-2).  ᵿ ߴ
p,  p ѡ p  񫻫ߴ ټ
pҬԿἿ pԼᵿ  p ѫի񿼫Կ.  pѡ ١߿ߴ
p pѽѡ ߿߿ ߻Ѽ ٬  ᡿ pԼ
 pҬp  ᵿ p޿pѡ p὿ ݬ-p.)
2.1.   Ѭ
P߼pߴ  ի  pѽѡ :   
Ѭԫ    p ( Ѭԫ +  pᵿ 
). ԫp ի pѽߴ ߫һ ѡԡ ,
pڿ  Ѭ . P߼pߴ  ߡ pạԿ
ᬿ : ҡ (pp, Կ)  ߬pԿ
(ѻpp, ߿).
Ҫߴ  ߡ pạԿ Ѭԫ: Կ߬ 
Ἷ߬, ߫Ѽ  Ἷ߬ ἴԿ. Ҫߴ Կ
pѼѡ  Ѭ  ᡿ ߫᡿/ҡԫѡ Ѭԫ. (p ԫ
p һpѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ p  Ҫߴ, ߼. 2.5).
Ҫߴ ѻ p pѪԿ Ѭ  
󫺼Կ pի Ѭ     p (ppᵿ
Ѭ).
2.2. pѡ Ѭԫ
ߴ Կ ݽѼѡ pѡ Ѭ  Կ ἴԿ , 
ԫp   pẼѡ ѡ  Ѭ, ߫һ ԫp
߫ pѡ pᵿ  Ѭ   ἴԿ  -
pᵿٮ p Ѭ. (ū ի ѡ ߴ ߡ Կ,
ᡡ  p᡿ᵿѮ ἴԿ : , p, ޿ ߽, ᮽ,
p pp p߫  ..).
ߴ ҡ pѽѡ pẼp ݽѼѡ pѡ Ѭ.
P߼pߴ һpѡ Ѽ p p߽ ᡿ Ѭ
(Կ߬, p߬  ..)  pᵿٮ p Ѭ, p
ԫ ߴ Կ Ѭԫ  p߽, Ѭԫ 
ѽp᡿, Ѭ-, Ѭ-pѼѡ.
2.3. p߽ٮ Կ  Ѭ-
ߴ ѻ p߽ѡ ѡ Ѭԫ, ᡡ  Ѯ Կ
p߽ Կ  ߻߫ pѡ pᵿ, ߡᡡٮ 
߻᡿  ߿Ѽ ߽ѡ (p᡿). ūߴ, ԫ
p߽ѡ - ߡ󡫮 ߻߫ pѡ  pᵿ, Ѽ
   (Կ, ߿󫽫, ᬫ  ..).  ԫ 󴺿
p߼pߴ p p᡿ѡԿ pp񡫮 Ԭ   p
󫺼 ߻᡿ p   ԫ pѡ  
߿߬ Կ ѼԿ. ߴ ߫ Ѫ
pẼp ݽѼѡ pѡ Ѭ p߽ Կ  ڡ ,
߻Ѽ   ᡿.
 ߡ p߽ Կ ߴ Կ ѡ pԡ
Կ, Ҫߴ p pѡ Ѭԫ-  ἴԿ ,
pᵿ  Ἷ, ߻᡿   ѽp᡿ Ѭԫ
p p.
2.4. Ѭ-p
P߼pߴ ѻ pp᡿   pҬp Ѭ 
Ҫߴ p  pѡ pᵿ  Ѭ - p.
pߴ pp pp᡿ p  (߿), pạp
 (ỿ߿), pp᡿  pԿ󡫮 ߡ (ỿ߿ 
pἿ). Ҫߴ pҬp ݽѼѡԫ pѡ Ѭԫ-pԫ.
2.5. ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ
P߼pߴ  ߡ  ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ p pѡ 
pԬ pᵿ  : ѡ᡿  Ҭ᡿ (ٽ). ߴ
pѽѡ ὿ѡ (὿pᡡ ѡԿԫp Ѭ).
ūp p߼pߴ ٽٮ Կ, pҬp ٽ, ߻᡿
ٽ  ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ, Ἷ߬ p
߫᡿/ҡԫѡ Ѭԫ, pѼ "ߴ" ٽ  "߫p", 
ᬪ Ѭ pѡᵿ ἴԿ.
ߴ pѽѡ һ  Ѭ, pѽߴ ᡵ һ p
߻᡿ ὿ѡ, pߴ pѡ ᡿ һ pѺ
ٽ  pѺ  Ѭ. Ҫߴ pҬp  ߻᡿ pԫp
p߫ѡ, 󫽴 ߫pԿ ᡵ һ  ߿
ѬԿ pԬ pᵿ  Ѭ.
Ҫߴ Ѭ߿p᡿  ԫ һ  Ѭ, ߡᡡٮ 
p ߽Ѽ p. pߴ pѡ p ߽Ѽ 
p᡿ p    ߡ ᡿ һ  Ѭ.
2.6. ppᵿ Ѭԫ
ߴ Կ Կ  ߻߫ ppᵿ Ѭ   ԫ ߡ
pѽߴ Կ ppἼ p  󫺼Կ
ѡ ppᵿ Ѭ.  ԫ 󴺿 Ҫߴ p
߫ԿԿ Կ  pԼ߬ ٬, pߴ pp ҡ
pѫpẫ᡿  pѡ Կ, Ҫߴ ѻ p ٬,
߻ү p p ߫ԿԿ Կ,  p,
߬ "ү" ppᵿ  Ѭ.
Ҫߴ Կ   p᡿ѡ Ҭѽ (ٽ), ԫ
ѡ ppᵿ Ѭ (ỿ߿  pἿ, Ὣѡ ߬,
pѫpẫ᡿ Կ)  󫺼Կ Ἷ߬ ѡѡ Կ  Ѭ,
߻Ѽ  ѽ ٬ ppἼp᡿ (pp, Clipper).
2.7. Ѭ-ԫp
P߼pߴ ѻ Կ Ѭ (ԫp),  ԫp pߴ
߫ѡ  p. pߴ pp  ѽp᡿
Ѭԫ p p,  ԫp ߻᡿ ѻ ԫp ߴ
 ѡ p pp᡿ (   ߽
ѡ).
P߼pߴ p p὿ᵿ ҡ  Ѭԫ-ԫp
pѺ pѼѡ pp Կ  p὿ᵿ p߫  ߡ
ѻ ߫ppἼ  p pѡpѽԿ.
 3.     f
  p߼pߴ ѪѬԡ  Ѫ߫ ԡѡ, pѽڿ
ѽ p᡿ᵿ  ᡡ.
3.1. p ԡѡ  p
P߼pߴ pѮ޿  ԡѡ Ѫ ѬἿ: p
ԡѡ  ѽߴ pԬ ѡ  ѼԿ߬ү ѫp ԡѡ:
pѽߴ ߡ  p ԡѡ,  pѡ  
p, Կ pѡ ԡѡ  p᡺Կ ٬᡿.
ǡ὿pүߴ pҬԿ 󫺼Կ ߻᡿ p ԡѡ
 pѡ  pѡ  pԬ pᵿ  .
3.2. ԡѡ ѡ  ߽᡿ 
Ļpѽߴ p Ѫ߫ ԡѡ ѡ, pߴ pp
ᬿ ԡѡ, ppүڿ ѻ ppἼ ߫ 
ߴ 󫺼Կ ߿ѼԿᵿ ᡿  pԡ Կ 
ߡ ᡿ ߽᡿ .
P߼pߴ ѽ 񿡿  ѡ ߽᡿,
Ҫߴ  ԡѡ ѡ, pҬp ߫߬
p, ԡѡ -, Կ  p   һp.
P߼pߴ 󫺼Կ pҿp᡿ Ѭԫ  ߡ ѽѮ
߽᡿ .
3.3. ѪѬԡ ԡѡ   ᡡ
 ߡ Ѭԫ-pԫ, pѼ  p , ߴ
ߡ ԡѡ  Ѽ, p὿Ѽ  ߿Ѽ  ᡡ. ߴ
Կ ppտ߬, , pѽ   pߴ  pѡ.
Ļpѽߴ Կ , p p  ߴ  ppԿ
p὿ᵿ  ᡡ  ᮽ pҬp,  ᬪ p߫ ߬
pᵿ.
Ļߴ p p᡿ᵿ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ  ᡡ.
 4. P PP
  ߴ ߡ  pᵿ pҬp, ߻Ѽ 
pѡ pᵿ Ѭԫ    p὿ᵿ pԼ
pԬ pᵿ.
4.1.  ߡ pҬpᵿ ᡿
ߴ Կ ѽԡԿ   pᵿ, p߼pߴ ߡ
 pҬpᵿ:  ߿ᵿ, ѡ, pp᡿, ߫ᵿ.
 ԫ ߡ Ҫߴ ߡ  pҬp ԡѡ 
pѡ pҬp  ἴԿ .
Ҫߴ ߡ  pҬpᵿ pᵿ: Ѭ ѽ
 Կ  pѽѡ ԡѡ Ѫ Դ. P߼pߴ pp
pҬpᵿ ᡡ  ᡿.
4.2. 信Ἷ߬ pҬp
ߴ ѻ Ἷ߬ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ pҬp 
Ἷ߬ ԡѡ Ѫ ѬἿ  ߡ󡫮 ᡿ 
ѽp᡿ Ἷ߬ p߫  ߿Ѽ p p. Ҫߴ
ߡ  Ἷ߬ ߫ᵿ Ѭԫ: p, Ѭ, Ѭ.
ߴ  p߼pѡ ߻߬ pҬp, Ҫߴ p ߻߬,
p  pѬp߿ ߻߬, p߼pߴ Ѯ١, 
 󴺡 ߻߬ pҬp.
P߼pߴ ҡp pҬp p, ppߴ
߻᡿ pҬp p  ٬ ppἼp᡿ (S-pѡ
߻, ѡٮ ߿ 轿p  ..).
4.3. ppտ߬ pҬp
ߴ pѽѡ pҬp p, p߼pߴ ߡ Կ,
ᡡ  p, ߻᡿ pҬp p  pѡ
pᵿ. Ҫߴ pẽ  p, p pѡ
p (߬ ỿ, ᡡ pҬp, ߽ѽ
pҬp), pѫpẫ᡿ p    p.
߫ 󡿼᡿ ѽߴ pټ p, pᵿ ի p,
p իԫ, ߫pԿp  ߬  p, ߿pᡡټ
p.
4.4. PѬp߿ pҬp
PѬp߿ p߼pߴ    ᡿ pҬpᵿ ᡿.
pߴ pp pѬp߿ pѽѡ pẽ pҬp,  ԡԿ
pҬp p  Ѯ ߻߬. pߴ pѬp߿ٮ 
pѬp߿ٮ ի  pѽѡ  pѡ pᵿ.
P߼pߴ pѬp߿ pp, pߴ ߻᡿ pѬp߿
 pᵿ, Ҫߴ ߻᡿ pҬp Ѭ  
pѬp߿ ppἼp᡿.
4.5. ҽ pҬp
Ҫߴ p p᡿ᵿ ҽ ppἼp᡿  ᡡ 
 pѼ Ѭ ߽Ѽ pԡ Կ  ppἼ
ݬѡ pԡ p ԫ Կ - ҽ.
Ҫߴ Կ ҽ  ppἼ ݬѡ pԡ Կ,
p p᡿ᵿ  ҽ  ҽ Ѭԫ, p-
ݬ߻p Ѭԫ, p᡿ᵿ Ѫҽ Ѯ, p᡿ᵿ ԫ
p ppἼ ()  p߽ѡ pҬp p
߫һԿ ҽѮ.  ԫ ߡ Ҫߴ p ա
ppԬ .
pߴ pp ҽ pҬp   pẽ p  .
 5. P P 
  ߴ ߡ  pᵿ p߫, p὿Ѽ 
,  ߻ѵ߬ ߫ѡԿ  pԼ.
 5.1. pᵿٮ ߬  ߫pԿp
ߴ ߡ Կ, ᡡ  pἿ ߬  ߫pԿp,
p߼pߴ ߡ pԼ ߬  ߫pԿp, pߴ pp
ᬿ pԼ, p὿ᡡ  pẽ pҬp, Ҫߴ ԫ
pѫpẫ᡿   p, ߻үڿ ޿p᡿.
ѽ p߼pߴ ԫ߬ ߫pԿp  Ҫߴ 
pѡѡ  pѡ pᵿ, ᡡ  p p.
Ļpѽߴ Կ ߽Կ pԼ  pߴ ߫ѡ
pẽ pԼ  ߽Կ. ߴ  pѡ  pԼ
ݬ߻ѡ ߽Կ  NP-.
5.2. ߽ѽٮ ݬ߻pѡ
P߼pߴ p ߽ѡ  , pѽߴ ߡ 
pҼѡ pޡѮ, p ᬫѡ pޡѮ 
p߻ppѡ ޿, ߻ѵ߬ ߫ѡԿ ޿ pԿ.
ߴ  pѡ  ԫ ߽ѡ   (߽ѡ ԫ),
ѽߴ ѡ  ߽ѽү ѼԿ, ߴ ѡ
߿ѼԿᵿ ߽ѡ ԫ, ߻Ѽ  pѡ   
Կ ѼԿ.
P߼pߴ ڿ p p᡿ᵿ ߽ѡ  ߻ѵ
pҬp ế ( pp ߽ѡ  ԫ p   Ѭߡ
߽).
P߼pߴ p᡿ᵿ pẽ Ѭ  ߽ѽټ Ἷ
p : ٬   ԿԿ߬ pԫ,
ݽѬp .
5.3. 꼿ᵿٮ ݬ߻pѡ
꼿ᵿ p߼pߴ    ߡ ԫ ߽᡿ ߽
߿Ѽ  , pѽڿ ү pᵿү ա ѽp᡿.
P߼pߴ ߡ ߻Ѭ ᵿ ѽp᡿ (ѽ
ѡ, ߻᡿ ߽ᮡ ѽ, p ԿԿ, ߬pԡ-
߫Կ  p߬ һpѡ, ѻpp-߬pԡ ѽ 
..).
ߴ  ppԿ ٬ ѽp᡿  ߡ ѻ,
߻Ѽ  Ѭ ߽Ѽ ߿Ѽ.
5.4. 濼 ߽ѡ
P߼pߴ ߫ٮ  ߿ pѫpẫ᡿, ޿ ᡿
"߿ ߽ѡ" - pѫpẫ᡿ p߬ pѡ.
ppѽ Ҫߴ Կ pѡ  p ᡿ ѪѬԡ
ԡѡ  p pѻ᡿  pp ߡ  ߿
pѫpẫ᡿ pѡ (ᡫ).
P߼pߴ ߡ  pѡ ߿ ߽ѡ  pѡ
p߬ :
- һpѡ p߬ pѡ (pѡ  ѡ,
pѼѡ, pẽѡ     ..);
- pѡ pѡ ( ߿ );
- ߿ pѡp᡿;
- ὿ pẼpѮ.
P߼pߴ pҬp  pԼ ߿ ߽ѡ.
  6. f  
  ߴ ѽ ٬  ߻ѵᵿ   ѽ
p߽  p ᡿    ppԿpѼٮ p 
ἴԿ .
6.1. ѡ  ߻ѵᵿ 
ߴ ѡ Կ  pԬ pᵿ  Ѭ, 
ԫp ߴ ի ᡡ   pѡ, pԼ, ԫ,
ᬫ  ..
P߼pߴ  ߡ pᵿ p, ᡡ  ԿѼ
: ᡿  (߻ѵᵿ)  pѡ   
(ppᵿ).  ԫ 󴺿 ߴ Կ ٬  p
߻ѵᵿ   p߽  p pѡ  
ppԿpѼ   ߽ү pѡ  .
Ļߴ  ٬, ߻Ѽ  ߻ѵᵿ :
߬pԿ (ѻpp), pp (pԼ߬), ٬
Ὣ, ٬ Կ "ѡ",  ٬ (Կ "ừ ᡬ"), ٬
ԫpἼ  .. pߴ ߿ѼԿᵿ pẽ  ٬  
߬pԿټ 󫺼Դ    ٬ ߻ѵᵿ ѽߴ
p ٬ pẫ pҬp,   ڡ p
߻ѵᵿ .
Ҫߴ pѼ pԡ pѡᵿ ٬, ᬽߴ 
ppԬ pԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬ pѮ ѽ -
߽ѽ  pԡ pԡ Կ,   ᡿ 
Կ ppἼp᡿.
Ļpѽߴ Կ p pԡ pѡᵿ ٬  Ҫߴ
ѡ ߿ ѪԿ ᡿  (pᵿ p
ѬԡԿ ᡿)  p ٬, pѡ  ߡ pԡԡ
ѽ p  ߻ѵᵿ.
6.2. f٬ pẫ pҬp
ߴ ẫ Կ ѫp p ٬: , p,
p, p, pҬ (p󿽫 ).  ԫ ߡ pߴ
߿ѼԿᵿ p ٬ ( ߬)  pѽߴ Կ
pԡ ߿߿, ѼԿ  pԿ ٬.
佴 ߻ѵᵿ ߿߿ pẫ pҬp ߴ p ᵿ
ݬ - p (). Ҫߴ p޿pѡ  (P). pߴ pp
᡿ ߿߿ pẫ pҬp  P     ߿߿߬
pἼ.
Ҫߴ ٬ ߻Ѭ, ԫp  ߴ   pἬ
p ߿߿, p ԫ ߻үߴ Կ ѼԿ ٬ 
Ѭ. pߴ pp ߿߿߬  ѼԿ߬ ޿ 
᡿ .
6.3. 諡Ѭԡ- pἼԿ
Ҫߴ ѽ -pἼԿ,  ߻᡿  p pѡ
pẫ pҬp (ѡѡ p)  ὿ ᬿ pҬp  ᡿
.
P߼pߴ p ppѬԡԿ pѽѡ pἼԿ   
pἼԿ߬ ޿: pԡ-pѽѡ p, ѫpѽѡ
p (һ), ߻ѵ߬ ޿ ߻᡿ pѬp߿  ..
Ҫߴ p pѫpẫ᡿  Կᵿ pἼԿ,  ᬪ
p᡿ᵿ  p὿ᵿ ߿߿߬ ὿  ߻᡿Ѽ -
pἼԿ, 󬽯 p᡿ᵿ Ѭ߿߬ ὿, ѽѡ 
߽ ٬, ߻᡿ ߿p   ..
 ᬽѡ p߼pߴ "p߽pүڿ" pἼԿ - -pἼԿ,
p޿pѡ ٺἿ ѼԿ߬ pp.
6.4. 濡߿߬ һpѼ p p߽
p p߽ ᡿  p߼pߴ  p
pѫpẫ᡿ Կ߬  p   ppԿpѼү pҬp
ᡡ. Ҫߴ pẽ  ᬿ pҬp (޿ٮ , ppἼ
 pѪԫ ٬, pҬp ᡡ  ..).
Ҫߴ Կ   ppᵿ  ߫ѡ
pѼ  ppԿpѼ ٬. P߼pߴ ߡ 
p , ߡ  ޿  ᡿  (޿ 
),   ᬪ  ޿  ppᵿ  (pԿ߬
޿).
ߴ Կ ߿߿߬ һpѼ p p߽,
p߼pߴ Ѭԫp  ᬿ p߫, p p߼pߴ
p ߿߿߬ һpѼ ߻߬  p pἼԿ  ߡ
᡿ pѬp߿.  ԫ 󴺿 Ҫߴ ѻ "ԫp
ԫp" - ߿Ѽ ԫԿpᡡ pҿp᡿ p߽ԫp
٬ ߻ѵᵿ .
P߼pߴ Ѭԫp ߻Ѭ ߿߿߬-һpѼ p
pԿp᡿ ᡿ .
 7.    
ߴ ppԿ  ի  pѡ ᡿ 
pᵿ p p   pᵿ ա,
ếpүڿߴ  ᬿ ի.
7.1. Ǭ὿  pҬԿ󿺼  ѼԿ
pߴ, ԫ p  p p὿ᵿ pᵿ
ա ߻߫ѡ p ѡ pp pᵿ
p߫, ԫ pѽߴ pҬԿ p ѽѮ
pԬ pᵿ.
 ԫ 󴺿 һߴ   pѡ  ߫pѼѡ ѼԿ:
὿  pҬԿ󿺼 (ҿ὿). Ҫߴ p
Խ pҬԿ ѽѮ  ߿߬ ѼԿ߬ pѡ
὿. ᬫ Ҫѡ pߴ  p pԡ pp
(ᵿ ѽp᡿  pѡ pѡ).
 ߡ ὿ Կ pp ߴ, ԫ   , ԫp
 ԡԿ  ߿߬, ߻᡿ pҬԿ󡫮 ѽ 
ѡ ѡ ,  p pѡ pᵿ
(pᵿ p)  ԫ pѡ .
 ԫ 󴺿 Ҫߴ  pѡ  pԿ p
ա:
- ᵿ p  ԫ pѡ , pҽpᡡ  pἬ
߿߬ ѼԿ (ݬѡ߿ pѡ) 
- ppԬ ѽѮ,  ѯڿ Ὣ  ߿߬ ѼԿ
(ѡ߿ pѡ).
ԫp pѡ p߼pߴ p ԫ  pѽ ߫һ
ի  p᡿ᵿ pᵿ p߫ ԫἿ ߬ѡ
ѽѬ. p   pү p: pp᡿  Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ѽ, ߬ , ᵿ, ѻ
ppἼp᡿.
7.2. ߬ ի  pѡ pᵿ pѼ
꺽ߴ ߡ ҽ p, pѽߴ Կ ᵿ,
p, ߴ  p߼pѡ pҬ p   ԫ ߡ
ߴ p ߬ , pѺ  ߬
ppἼp᡿.
Ҫߴ p᡿ѡ 󫺼Կ  ի, ߡᡡ  "ԫ"
,   pѡ  ޫ pẼpԿ.
ߴ Կ pԿ   ѪԿ.  ԫ ߡ Ҫߴ
ѻ ݬ߻pԡ ߿Ѽ  ѡ ݬ߻pԡ ᡿.
ߴ ppԿ ٬ P  , p pѡ ԫp
ѽ߫pạ ߻ ߬ ppἼp᡿. pߴ pp
߬ ߬pҿpᡡ ppἼ.

 ԫ ߡ Ҫߴ pѡ, ᡡ  ppԬ ݬ߻pԡ
߿Ѽ, Ҫߴ p pѡ, 󫺼Կ ѡ 
pᵿ,  ԫp.
7.3. Pѽ : ѻ ppἼp᡿
P߼pߴ ѻ "pѽ "  ᡡ  Ѯ Կ
ѻ ppἼp᡿. Ļߴ ߡ p
߻ѵᵿ pԡ Կ   pҬp ѼԿ߬ Կ,
pߴ ߫pѽ pp ᬿ Ѯ.
Ҫߴ Կ pѡ  (p߿), ի  pᡡ
p ppp  ѽ p ݬ,  ߴ, ԫ
ѼԿ߬    p߼pߴ  p pѡ pѡ
.
Ҫߴ ԫ ppѡ ѼԿ߬ Ѯ  ԫԿ߬ ߿Ѻ
ppἼ pѡ .
Ҫߴ ԫ  Ԭ Ѽ ի  pѼ,
ᡡ  pѡѼ ѽ ѼԿ߬ Կ (ѽԡ  ,
󫺼Կ p p ppѬԡԿ  ..).
pԬ ߴ ߿Ѽ ѻ ppἼp᡿.
7.4. 諼ԫp-߬ ի
P߼pߴ pp ( Կ p  ѼԿ߬ 󫽫) 
ߴ  ppԿ ԫp-߬ ,  ԫp
ppѡ Ѭ "ԫp p".
Ҫߴ Կ "ի pѽѡ"  (߽ pѽѡ) 
, ԫpү 󫺼 pp, pԿ pҿp᡿
pԼ  pѡ, 󫺼Կ ߻᡿ pҬp p ѽѮ 
pԿ߬ ի.
Ҫߴ pp  󫺼Կ pԿ߬ ppἼp᡿  ᬪ
p߻ѬԿ pԿ ԫ pѡ.
7.5. pտѬp ߽ѽ ߿Ѽ
pߴ, ԫ p߻ѬԿ pԿ  pᵿ ա 
   ߫pѡ᡿Ѽ ߫ѡ ߽ѽ ߿Ѽ (
pտѬp  p᡿ᵿ).  ԫ  pԬ ppүߴ 
pѡ pԿ ߽ѽ ա:
      - p߻p ߿Ѽ,
      -  pҬp  Ԭp ߿Ѽ,
      -   pԡ-pѡԿpᡡ pտѬp.

 ᬽѡ  ߬ߴ ѽ᡿  p ѽ  pߴ
pѡ, ԫ ᡿ p p᡿ᵿ p
pᵿ p߫, pp᡿  pҬpᵿ, ԫpټ
ѡ , 󫽿 ѽ p  ѬԿ  ү
pԡү  ߿Ѽ pԬ pᵿ.
pѡ 1. p pѽѡ ߿߿ ٬ -
 pԼ, ߻Ѽ  .