История AMD


              Министерство  Образования  Российской  Федерадии
         Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Технический Университет


                                           Факультет Экономики и Менеджмента

                            Кафедра Иностранных Языков



                                   РЕФЕРАТ
                                   на тему
                           Advanced Micro Devices



                                                  Выполнил студент гр.3074/1
                                                  Кузьмин Павел Владимирович



                               Санкт-Петербург
                                    1999
                                INTRODUCTION

Now-a-days it’s hard to imagine any field of human activity where  the  help
of computers isn’t in demand. They have become  what  the  people  can’t  do
without everywhere  –  in  work,  getting  education,  entertainment.  Their
expanding and general availability are the result of the huge step that  the
technical progress in the PC processors industry has made for  the  last  10
years.The productivity of processors is  much higher  than  it  was  even  5
years ago,  and  the  cost  –  lower.The  other  motive  is  the  increasing
competition among the companies producing processors.
The leading position at the market  of   processors was taken by  Intel  and
there were no companies that could seriously compete  with  Intel.  But  the
last 3 years it has to share the market  with  another  processors  producer
called AMD - Advanced Micro Devices - the  company   whose  success  is  the
point to be told about below.



                                      3

                               HISTORY OF AMD
As the AMD story has unfolded, its product lines have expanded, its  culture
has evolved, and the individual successes of its people have  grown.  Here's
a brief summary of  the  three  decades  that  have  passed  -  and  a  very
favorable indication of the years that lie ahead.
Among the things that unite AMD employees around  the  globe  is  a  history
highlighted by remarkable  achievement.  Since  1969,  AMD  has  grown  from
afledgling start-up,  headquartered  in  the  living  room  of  one  of  its
founders, to a global corporation with annual  revenues  of   $2.4  billion.
The events that shaped AMD's growth,  the  strengths  that  will  drive  its
future success, and a  timeline  encompassing  AMD's  defining  moments  are
featured here.
1969-74 - Finding Opportunity
By May 1, 1969, Jerry Sanders and seven others had been toiling  for  months
to pull together their scrappy start-up. The year  before,  Jerry  had  left
his job as director of worldwide marketing at Fairchild  Semiconductor,  and
he now found himself heading a team committed  to  a  well-defined  mission-
building a successful semiconductor company by offering building  blocks  of
ever-increasing  complexity  to  benefit  the  manufacturers  of  electronic
equipment in the computation, communication and  instrumentation markets.
Although the company was initially headquartered in the living room  of  one
of the co-founders, John Carey, it soon moved to two rooms in the back of  a
rugcutting company in Santa Clara. By September, AMD had  raised  the  money
it  needed  to  begin  manufacturing  products  and  moved  into  its  first
permanent home,901 Thompson Place in Sunnyvale.
During the company's first years, the vast majority  of  its  products  were
alternate-source devices, products obtained from other companies  that  were
then redesigned for greater speed and efficiency.  "Parametric  superiority"
were the watchwords of AMD even then. To give the products even  more  of  a
selling edge, the company instituted a guarantee  of  quality  unprecedented
in the industry - all products would be made and tested  to  stringent  MIL-
STD-883,regardless of who the customer was and at no extra cost.
By the end of AMD's fifth year, there were  nearly  1,500  employees  making
over 200 different products - many of them proprietary  -  and  bringing  in
nearly $26.5 million in annual sales.
1974-79 - Defining the Future
AMD's second five years gave  the  world  a  taste  of  the  company's  most
enduring trait--tenaciousness. Despite a dogged recession in  1974-75,  when
sales briefly slipped, the company grew during this period to  $168  million
, representing an average annual compound growth rate of over 60 percent.
On its fifth anniversary, AMD began what was to become a renowned  tradition
- it held a gala party, this one a street fair  attended  by  employees  and
their families.
This was also a period of tremendous  facilities  expansion,  including  the
construction of 915 DeGuigne in Sunnyvale, opening an assembly  facility  in
Manila,    Philippines,    and     expanding     the     Penang     factory.


                                      4
1980 - 1983 - Finding Pre-eminence
The early 1980s  were  defined  for  AMD  by  two  now-famous  symbols.  The
first,called the "Age of Asparagus,"  represented  the  company's  drive  to
increase the number of proprietary  products  offered  to  the  marketplace.
Like this lucrative crop, proprietary products take time to  cultivate,  but
eventually bring excellent return on  the  initial  investment.  The  second
symbol was a giant ocean wave. The focus  of  "Catch  the  Wave"  recruiting
advertisements,the wave portrayed by the company as an unstoppable force  in
the integrated circuit business.
|AMD became a leader in investment into research and development. By the   |
|end offiscal year 1981, the company had more than doubled its sales over  |
|1979. Plants and facilities expanded with an emphasis on building in      |
|Texas. New production facilities were built in San Antonio, and more fab  |
|space was added to Austin as well. AMD had quickly become a major         |
|contender in the world semiconductor marketplace.                         |
|1984-1989 - Weathering Hard Times                                         |
|AMD celebrated its 15th year with one of the best sales years in company  |
|history. In the months following AMD's anniversary, employees received    |
|record-setting profit sharing checks and celebrated Christmas with musical|
|group Chicago in San Francisco and Joe King Carrasco and the Crowns in    |
|Texas.                                                                    |
|By 1986, however, the tides of change had swept the industry. Japanese    |
|semiconductor makers came to dominate the memory markets - up until now a |
|mainstay for AMD - and a fierce downturn had taken hold of the computer   |
|market , limiting demand for chips in general. AMD, along with the rest of|
|the semiconductor industry, began looking for new ways to compete in an   |
|increasingly difficult environment.                                       |
|By 1989, Jerry Sanders was talking about transformation: changing the     |
|entire company to compete in new markets. AMD began building its submicron|
|capability with the Submicron Development Center.                         |
|1989-94 - Making the Transformation                                       |
|Finding new ways to compete led to the concept of AMD's "Spheres of       |
|Influence." For the transforming AMD, those spheres were microprocessors  |
|compatible with IBM computers, networking and communication chips,        |
|programmable logic devices, and high-performance memories. In addition,   |
|the company's long survival depended on developing submicron process      |
|technology that would fill its manufacturing needs into the next century. |
|By its 25th anniversary, AMD had put to work every ounce of tenaciousness |
|it had to achieve those goals. Today, AMD is either #1 or #2 worldwide in |
|everymarket it serves, including the Microsoft® Windows-compatible        |
|business, where the company has overcome legal obstacles to produce its   |
|own versions of the wildly popular Am386® and Am486® microprocessors. AMD |
|has become a pre-eminent supplier of flash, EPROM,                        |
|networking,telecommunications and programmable logic chips as well. And it|
|is well on its way to bringing up another high-volume production area     |
|devoted to submicron devices. For the past three years, the company has   |
|enjoyed record sales and record operation income.                         |
|AMD looks very different today than it did 25 years ago. But it is still  |
|the tough, determined competitor it always was, weathering every challenge|
|because of the unending strength of its people.                           |
|                                                                          |
|5                                                                         |
|1994-1999 - From Transformation to Transcendence                          |
|AMD's growth through the rest of the century will likely be fueled by the |
|exploding demand for mobile computing and telecommunications devices, two |
|markets for which AMD has spent years developing products. Key to the     |
|company's success will be building close relationships with its customers,|
|and continuing to develop the manufacturing and process technologies      |
|necessary to produce future-generation submicron devices.                 |
|One thing is for certain, AMD's future will be shaped by the same         |
|principles that are woven into its past: a competitive drive, a focus on  |
|customers, innovative new products, and the ability to learn and adapt to |
|change. Most of all, the company's future will be shaped by AMDers, the   |
|people whose efforts created a successful, and now legendary, company.    |



                                      6
                               AMD PROCESSORS
      The Am486 Processor
This  CPU  incorporated  write-back  cache  and  Enhanced  power  management
features. These characteristics made the Am486 CPUs the perfect  choice  for
Energy Star-compliant "green" desktop systems and for the  growing  portable
market segment. With clock-tripled performance speeds up to  120  MHz,  this
CPU offered great price/performance value  for  both  desktop  and  portable
computers by providing power management and write-back Enhanced features  at
no extra premium.
The Am486  microprocessors  featured  Enhanced  power  management  features,
including SMM and clock control. These enhancements  allowed  reduced  power
consumption during system inactivity. The SMM function was implemented  with
an industry standard two-pin interface. In write-back mode, frequently  used
data were stored in the high-speed internal cache and  accessed  continually
from within until the data were modified, thus  increasing  the  performance
of the CPU.

                            The Am5x86 Processor
The  Am5x86  processor  incorporated  advanced  features  to   achieve   586
performance. The Am5x86 CPU runed clock quadrupled at 133-MHz with a  33-MHz
external bus. High-performance features such as a  unified  16-Kbyte   cache
using write-back technology minimized the time the x86 core must have  spent
waiting for data or instructions,  thereby  accelerating  all  business  and
multimedia applications.
AMD's 0.35-micron process technology enabled AMD to deliver  superior  value
with the Am5x86 processor. In addition, the design and pinout of the  Am5x86
processor leveraged off 4th generation system costs, allowing  manufacturers
to position Am5x86 CPU-based systems  as  the  best  value  for  entry-level
desktops or mainstream notebooks.

                            The AMD-K5 Processor
This   processor's   fifth-generation   performance   stemed   from    AMD's
independently  conceived  AMD-K5  superscalar   core   architecture,   which
combined highly efficient reduced instruction set computing  (RISC)  through
put with complete x86 instruction-set compatibility.
The result was a superscalar processor  solution  capable  of  issuing  four
instructions per clock cycle­ twice as many as the Pentium.  That  was  more
than enough power to run complex 32-bit operating systems and  applications,
as well as the huge installed base of 16-bit software.
AMD designed the AMD-K5 processor to be pin  compatible  with  the  Pentium.
And that was good news for PC manufacturers  and  resellers  who  wanted  to
leverage their existing PC designs and infrastructure while  relying  on  an
alternative source of processors. The bottom line:  Pentium  hardware/socket
compatibility means no system redesign, lower design costs,  and  fast  time
tomarket.
|                                                                          |
|                                                                          |
|                                                                          |
|7                                                                         |
|The AMD-K6 Processor               |
|As a member of AMD's E86 family of x86-based processors , the AMD-K6 gives|
|systems developers access to the largest base of programmers and existing |
|software while enabling powerful, cost-effective solutions for today's    |
|increasingly sophisticated embedded applications.                         |
|The AMD-K6 microprocessor has redefined the desktop PC market, providing  |
|sixth-generation performance at an affordable price. Now, embedded        |
|applications can benefit from the reliable, affordable computing power    |
|derived from this powerful microprocessor. The AMD-K6 microprocessor gives|
|embedded customers a significant performance boost which enables them to  |
|produce superior products.                                                |
|For applications such as central office switches, point-of-sale terminals,|
|information appliances and Windows based single board computers, the      |
|AMD-K6E microprocessor is an excellent choice for OEMs looking to take    |
|advantage of the x86 instruction set. They can continue to use the        |
|industry's mostprevalent architecture to produce products with high       |
|performance and fast time-to-market.                                      |


    The AMD-K6-2 Processor
|The AMD-K6-2 processor offers a powerful combination of system price and  |
|performance and is the aleternative to Intel's Pentium II processor.      |
|The AMD-K6-2 processor with 3DNow! technology delivers leading-edge,      |
|sixth-generation performance for today's demanding Microsoft® Windows®    |
|compatible homeand office applications. The 9.3-million-transistor        |
|AMD-K6-2 processor is manufactured on AMD's 0.25-micron, five-layer-metal |
|process technology.                                                       |


The distinctive chracteristic of  AMD-K6-2 processor is 3D Now! technology.
3DNow! Technology
|AMD's 3DNow! technology is the first innovation to the x86 architecture   |
|that significantly enhances 3D graphics, multimedia, and other            |
|floating-point-intensive PC applications to enable a superior visual      |
|computing experience.                                                     |
|3DNow! technology is a set of 21 instructions that use SIMD (Single       |
|Instruction Multiple Data) and other performance enhancements to open the |
|performance bottleneck in the 3D graphics pipeline between the host CPU   |
|and the 3D graphics accelerator card.                                     |
|3DNow! works hand-in-hand with leading 3D graphics accelerators to achieve|
|faster frame rates on high-resolution scenes, improved physical modeling  |
|of real-world environments, realistic 3D graphics and images, and         |
|theater-quality audio and video.                                          |
|8                                                                         |


                          The AMD K6-III Processor
This processor is the newest product of  AMD  issued  in  February  of   the
present year.
This CPU ,code-named "Sharptooth", is basically   a  K6-2  with  a  256K  L2
(second level) cache incorporated in the chip. It's well-known that  the  L2
cache can cause huge impacts on the CPU's performance. By  doing  that,  the
K6-III  has the fastest L2 cache on the market - only  the  extinct  Pentium
Pro and the extremely expensive Xeon Pentium II (a Pentium Pro in a  Pentium
II suit) share the same feature. Because  it  remains  compatible  with  the
Socket 7 standard, the motherboard L2  cache  should  become  an  L3  cache,
which also increases the CPU's performance a little.
This innovation being used in K6-III has got the name of the TriLevel  Cache
design.
TriLevel Cache Design
AMD's TriLevel Cache design enables  the  AMD-K6-III  processor  to  process
instructions faster and deliver better performance at the  same  clock  rate
than the AMD-K6-2 processor and Intel's Pentium III.
AMD's  innovative  TriLevel  Cache  design  maximizes  the  overall   system
performance of AMD-K6-III processor-based desktop PCs by delivering  one  of
the industry's largest maximum combined system  caches.  This  larger  total
cache results in higher system performance.
AMD's TriLevel Cache design is not only  the  largest  cache  implementation
for desktop PCs, it is exceptionally fast.
The TriLevel Cache design also offers an internal  multiport  cache  design.
This flexible design feature delivers higher system performance by  enabling
simultaneous 64-bit reads and writes of both the L1 cache and the L2  cache.
In addition, each cache can be  accessed  simultaneously  by  the  processor
core.

                            The AMD-K7 Processor


The  AMD-K7  design  features   a   number   of   compelling   technological
breakthroughs, including the industry's first mainstream 200 MHz system  bus
and  the   most   architecturally   advanced   floating   point   capability
everdelivered in an x86 microprocessor.
The Microsoft Windows compatible AMD-K7  processor  with  3DNow!  technology
offers seventh-generation design features that distinguish it from  previous
generations  of  PC  processors.  These  innovations  include  a  nine-issue
superscalar  microarchitecture  optimized   for   high   clock   frequency,a
superscalar pipelined floating point unit, 128KB  of  on-chip  L1  cache,  a
programmable high-performance backside L2  cache  interface,and  a  200  MHz
Alpha  EV6-compatible  system  bus  interface  with  support  for   scalable
multiprocessing.
The AMD-K7 processor is expected to be available in July or August  of  1999
and is planned to operate at clock frequencies faster than 500 MHz,based  on
AMD's 0.25-micron process technology. The  AMD-K7  processor  will  leverage
existing physical and mechanical PC infrastructure.
AMD K7 processor will definitely help AMD to  compete  with  Intel's  future
Katmai processors and beyond.
                                      9
                                 CONCLUSION
So with such processors as the AMD-K6-III and the  AMD-K7  AMD  is  becoming
the  most  serious  competitor  of  the  Intel  company  at  the  market  of
processors for  PC.  And  this  competition  is  breaking  Intel’s  monopoly
braking the technical  progress  in  the  field  of  computer  technologies,
making the producers  of  processors  invest  more  money  in  research  and
development of new technologies. The  result  of  these  is  the  increasing
tempo of the technical progress. Now it’s hard to  predict   what  processor
we will see over the next 10 years.



                                     10
                            THE LIST OF KEY WORDS

AMD=Advanced Micro Devices
Intel=Intellegent Electronics
competition
processor
cache
CPU
portable
notebook
desktop
bus
enchancement
3Dnow! Technology
TriLevel Cache Design


                                 REFERENCES
ссылка на сайт удаленаcontact://www.amd.com/
ссылка на сайт удаленаcontact://www.computerheaven.net/
Journals:”Computerra”
               “Computer World”



                                     11
                                  CONTENTS

Introduction________________________________________________________________
___3
History of
AMD________________________________________________________________4
AMD
Processors_______________________________________________________________ 7
The Am486
Processor___________________________________________________________7
The Am5x86
Processor__________________________________________________________7
The                                                                   AMD-K5
Processor_________________________________________________________7
The                                                                   AMD-K6
Processor_________________________________________________________8
The                                                                 AMD-K6-2
Processor_______________________________________________________ 8
3DNow!
Technology____________________________________________________________8
The                                                               AMD-K6-III
Processor______________________________________________________9
TriLevel                                                               Cache
Design__________________________________________________________9
The                                                                   AMD-K7
Processor_________________________________________________________9
Conclusion__________________________________________________________________
_10
The                     List                     of                      Key
Words_________________________________________________________11
References__________________________________________________________________
_11



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