Art of adviting


1.    The art of advertising 3

2.    Message strategies     3

A few words about creative strategy     10

Some final thoughts about the message strategy     15

Dictionary. 17



                        Inputs to message strategies


      The art of advertising


       Nowadays market  economy  is  widespread  all  over  the  world.  Any
company, working in this conditions face a lot of different  questions  such
as arranging marketing system, arranging management system and  so  on.  And
the problem of advertising the product is practically at  the  top  of  this
list. Some people think that to advertise means to let  the  customers  know
about your product. Maybe it was so many  years  ago.  Today,  in  times  of
severe competition, a function of advertising  is  much  more  complex.  You
should not only let people know you  should  make  them  buy.  In  different
forms, in different words you should convince everybody  that  your  product
is the best. So when such a problem appeared,  advertising  was  transformed
into a science. It was a mixture of management,  marketing  and  psychology.
But the large amount of ads all around began to aggravate people.  And  then
the science was developed into the art of advertising. It  became  creative.
Today exist even special institutes where people learn to advertise  and  to
do it professionally.

      Message strategies

      It is not creative unless it sells. This is the stated  philosophy  of
Benton&Bowles and the unwritten philosophy of most other  major  advertising
agencies,  and  it  should  be  everyone’s  guiding  star  in   advertising.
Creativity is essential, but for its own sake it is  insufficient;  it  must
be used to show the unique benefit of the product in a  memorable  way.  And
all the process can come to a full stop when  creativity  is  misguided  and
doesn’t show a benefit or implies a wrong product. But how  can  we  get  to
know what is creative and what is not? The only way  to  find  this  out  is
through the philosophy that guides Benton&Bowles. They worked out  the  main
formula of creativity: It’s not creative unless it sells.
      So any advertisement usually consists of an image and some text.  The
text part deals with message strategy. What should be said to  consumers  so
that the objectives set earlier  can  be  met?  Liberal  doses  of  art  and
science must be combined to answer this question. The  science  of  research
gives insights into the  appropriate  attributes,  benefits,  position,  and
target market; verbal, visual, and musical arts translate this dry,  sterile
data into a compelling message.
  In addition, the message strategy must fit  into  the  decision  sequence
framework. Much of the information gathered in the situation  analysis  will
be used here to give insight to  the  writers  and  artists  who  ultimately
create the message. Also, the message must help the advertiser to  meet  its
objective (relevant issues here are the task of  the  message  in  terms  of
movement along the  hierarchy  of  effects  and  the  target  market  to  be
pursued) and to meet its position (the  unique  meaningful  benefit  of  the
brand). Finally, the message must be consistent with constraints imposed  by
the   media   and   promotions   strategies   that   are   being   developed
simultaneously. The message strategy part will be divided according  to  the
following topics:
  1. The relevance of issues derived earlier from  the  situation  analysis
      and objectives and positioning  These issues are generally broken down
      to include the  product,  the  consumer,  and  the   competition.  The
      writers  and  artists  must  immerse  themselves  in   all   available
      information before they can create a message  of  relevance.  In  this
      section the key issues are reviewed  from  the  perspective  of  their
      relevance               to               message               design.

  2. Legal constraints Many laws govern advertising. Most of them constrain
      the type and presentation  of  information  in  the  message.  Current
      regulations,  primarily  from  the  Federal  Trade   Commission,   are
      presented here.
  3. Creativity  This is an  elusive  concept  and  is  certainly  not  the
      exclusive domain of writers and  artists.  It  is  most  appropriately
      discussed as part of message strategy because it is here that the most
      visible creativity takes  place  in  terms  of  the  creation  of  the
      message.
   4. Broad and specific classes of message appeals  and  execution  styles
      Appeals can be product oriented or consumer oriented and they tend  to
      locate somewhere on a continuum of  rationality  and  emotion.  Styles
      include humor, fear, sex, slice of life, documentary, and many more.
  5. Copy and  layout Copy deals with the verbal aspects  of  the  message,
      layout deals with the visual aspects. It is in the areas of  copy  and
      layout that the creative translation of dry fact to interesting visual
      and verbal art takes place. While copy and layout are  terms  specific
      to print, the concepts of verbal and visual  message  components  also
      hold for broadcast.
  6. Production After each message has been created and  put  on  paper  in
      rough  form  it  must  be  produced  in  its  appropriate  medium.  An
      understanding of production issues is necessary to help contain costs.
  7. Advertising research Although extensive research has occurred  in  the
      situation analysis, a special class of advertising  research  must  be
      discussed as part of message strategy. This research  deals  with  the
      measurement of the message's impact and  can  take  place  at  several
      levels ranging from a test of an early creative concept to a test of a
      finished commercial that  is  being  shown  on  television.  Dependent
      variables range from  awareness  through  behavior  depending  on  the
      nature of the objectives.
      The goal of the message strategy is to develop a message or  a  series
of messages that will be informative  and  persuasive  in  their  compelling
presentation or relevant issues to the target audience. This concept can  be
broken down so that its components can be examined.
 1. A message or series of  messages.  The  message  can  be  in  print  or
    broadcast media. There can be one  message  or  a  number  of  messages
    working together. In many  cases  it  is  preferable  to  have  several
    messages coordinated over time as a campaign.
 2. Informative and persuasive.  All  advertising  has  elements  that  are
    either informative or persuasive. Some is geared to be more of  one  or
    the other, but all messages have some of each component. Bu nature, all
    advertising tries to persuade the consumer  to  purchase  a  particular
    brand and at the same time they tries to be minimally informative.
 3. Compelling presentation. In order for the  informative  and  persuasive
    dimensions to have an impact, the message must be presented  in  a  way
    that stops the consumer and holds attention. The world’s  best  product
    will go unnoticed if it is not presented in an interesting way.
 4. Relevant issues. A compelling presentation is  necessary  to  stop  the
    consumer, but relevant issues are necessary to hold the  consumer.  The
    wonderfully entertaining but totally irrelevant messages will also hold
    the consumer attention, but they don’t necessarily sells the product.
 5. Relevant audience. Target market is an issue throughout the development
    of the campaign.
Very important moment in creating the ad  and  especially  in  choosing  the
message is to clearly and correctly set the objectives.  The  objective  has
four components:
Target market
Task of advertising
Time period within which to accomplish task
Amount of change to achieve within target
  Only the first two of these will be relevant to message objectives; time
period and amount of change are more relevant for the media and promotions
areas. Although the objectives here will just be concerned with the target
and task, it is still necessary to achieve a high level of precision in the
objective statement. It will also be useful (and should be required) to
justify each of the component parts .
  It is often said that  objectives  and  strategies  are  the  enemies  of
creativity, that objectives and strategies stifle,  restrict,  and  confine,
that strategies should only  provide  guidelines.  These  statements  almost
always come from writers or artists and show  a  lack  of  concern  for  the
business of the client and for the ultimate need to influence behavior.
  Of course, the complaints are  accurate.  Objectives  and  strategies  do
stifle, restrict and confine. That is their  purpose.  Given  the  level  of
competition in most product classes and the perceptual defenses  put  up  by
most consumers, it is important to direct creativity. It is  important  that
the creative work be on the mark so that it accomplishes the proper task  on
the  proper  target  market.  This  doesn't  stifle  real  creativity.  Real
creativity leads  to  the  development  of  a  unique,  memorable,  forceful
message that is also consistent  with  the  campaign  objectives.  Remember,
it's not creative unless it sells.
  As David Ogilvy wrote, "What you have to say is more important  than  how
you say it. Your most important job is to decide what you are going  to  say
about your product, what benefit you are going to promise."
  Ed Meyer, head of Grey Advertising, says, "The  stimulation  of  creative
advertising starts with the clear articulation of its objectives."
  And Dick Rowan of Marschalk Advertising  says,  "The  trouble  with  most
advertising is that few people ever stop  to  think  through  the  marketing
problem and objectives first. "
  The rigor imposed by objectives, positioning statements,  and  strategies
is designed to focus rather than constrict creativity. It permits the  total
creative effort to be directed toward execution rather than toward a  search
for directions and, ultimately, allows for a measurement of the  success  of
the messages in accomplishing their  goals.  A  nicely  written  defense  of
strategies was prepared a by Howard Shank of  Leo  Burnett;  as  it  appears
below:

A few words about creative strategy


      It seems to be in the nature of creative  people  to  chafe  at  those
  little pieces of paper entitled "Creative Strategy."
  To watch a lot of creative people react, you'd think those documents were
  really headed, "Arsenic. Take full strength. Do not dilute."
  There is, to be sure, some reason for this revulsion. It is  not  unheard
  of for writers and art directors to be asked to  execute  something  that
  should really be called an "un creative strategy."
      The authors of these papers have been known to be neither creative nor
  strategic in their thinking and  to  mask  a  certified  non-idea  behind
  formularized words. If you execute such a non-idea, what you are bound to
  have is a noncompelling advertisement. No matter how cleverly  you  write
  and visualize.
      Basic truth, you folks: the highest form of creativity in  advertising
  is the setting of real creative strategies.
  We must never forget it.
  It's what buid this business.
  It's where your future and my future lie.
  It's where  at least half the joy in our business is found.
      It's also where the hardest work  is  found,  I'll  admit.  But  don't
  forget, you always love hard work.
      If you're still with me, I'd like to tell you  what  a  real  creative
  strategy is.
  But  first,  I'll  suggest  to  you  some  of  the  things  it  is   not.
   .
      It Is not just a sentence that says, "The  advertising  will  convince
  people that our product is the (tastiest) (freshest) (mildest)  (hardest-
  working) (classiest) (fastest) product in the store.
      It is not the product of logic  and  analysis  alone—although  they're
  part of how you  get there. It is not the province of the client  or  the
  account man—although they should be heavily involved.
      It is not a jail for creative execution. Rather, if you've got a  real
  creative strategy, it will inspire you to  write  and  visualize  at  the
  height of your powers.
      It is not aimed at robots but at human beings with hearts and guts  as
  well as brains.
  The last sentence is the crux of the matter.
  The real creative strategy is the one that relates product to  yearnings.
  Formula to life style.
      If  you can look at a thinner cigarette and see not only as a  special
  cigarette for women but also as a symbol of equality for women,  you  can
  create real creative  strategies.
      If you can look at a bar of soap with pumice in it and see not only an
  efficient hand washer but also the solution to  the  problem  of  "Public
  Dirt," you can create real creative strategies.
  If you can look at a glass of chokolate milk and see it  not  as  just  a
  yummy thirst-quencher or  a  hunger  fighter  but  as  a  cure  to  kid’s
  whimsicalities, you can create real creative strategies.
      In all truth, the process that leads to real  creative  strategies  is
  the process that leads to inventions.
      It involves the seeing of old facts in new relationships.
      It involves the discovery of needs and wants in people that  even  the
  people may not have discovered in  themselves.  (Hardly  anyone  knew  he
  needed a telephone until A. G. Bell came along.)
  It also involves hard work. As I said before.
  When you have  a  creative  strategy  problem  on  your  plate,  you  are
  confronted by a need to know everything you can get your hands on.  About
  the product itself. About competitive products.  About  the  market:  its
  habits, its attitudes, its demographics. About the advertising history of
  the category.
      You need to study all the research you can get your hands on.
      You need to ask questions until people hate to see you.
  You need, in short, to dig, dig, dig.
      The dismal truth is that your chances of finding a compelling creative
  strategy are in direct proportion to how much information you stuff  your
  head with.
  If you are working on a new coffee, say, you will wind  up  knowing  more
  about coffee than you ever thought you wanted to know.
  There is a very good reason why you must do this human sponge act if  you
  are to invent real creative strategies.
      Your subconscious mind—where a very important part  of  the  invention
  process goes on—needs a richly-stocked data bank to do its best work.
      The job of your subconscious is to review and re-review everything you
  know about a subject. It  searches,  even  during  your  sleep,  for  new
  relationships between people  and  products;  searches,  as  I  suggested
  earlier, for new combinations of old Ideas; searches for the new  insight
  that can give even a very old product the right to ask for new  attention
  in the market.
  If you stint your subconscious on the input side, it  will  surely  stint
  you on the output.
  Creative strategy goes around in  the  world  under  several  pseudonyms:
  basic concept, basic selling idea,  product  positioning,  basic  selling
  proposition.
      But whatever the name, the purpose of real  creative  strategizing  is
  simple and vital: the invention of a big idea.
      I said earlier that this kind of creative strategy work is the highest
  form of creativity in advertising.
      I believe it wholeheartedly. I  also  believe  wholeheartedly  in  the
  power of brilliant execution.
  What I believe in most of all is the synergism you create when you couple
  a big idea with brilliant words and pictures.
  When you can do that regularly, you can't help getting rich  and  famous.
  Not to mention happy in your work.
      Responsibility for developing objectives  and  strategy  lies  at  the
agency, but before execution can be initiated there must  be  approval  from
the client. The statement of objectives and strategies  should  be  complete
but concise and should show justifications for decisions  that  emerge  from
the situation analysis.
      Tightly defined strategies also give freedom  to  copywriters  because
they know that their work should be judged solely against these  preexisting
guidelines. This direction should, therefore,  be  cherished.  From  another
perspective, Norman Berry of Oglivy & Mather says "There is nothing,  in  my
view, so stupid, or so wasteful of time, talent and money, as to  produce  a
whole lot of work saying one thing brilliantly,  when  in  fact  one  should
have been saying something else in the first place."
      To set accurate message objectives, a quick revue of  relevant  issues
will be useful.
In terms of target market:
Describe the audience as precisely as possible in relation to  demographics,
geographics and psychographics
What the problem that the brand will solve. for consumers.
In terms of the task:
Describe the task in terms of the stage of the hierarchy of effects.
Describe the task in terms of audience involved.
Describe the task in terms of the brands benefits.
Describe the task in relation to the competition.
Describe the desired tone of advertising


Some final thoughts about the message strategy



 The statement of message tasks must cover four specific areas:
Whom to sell
What to sell
Support of selling idea
Tone of selling idea
 For a message to be effective in accomplishing its tasks it must be:
Attention getting.. It must attract and hold the receiver.
Understandable. It must use symbols that are common to both the  sender  and
the receiver.
Relevant. It must arouse basic needs and suggest the way to satisfy them.
Acceptable. It must  suggest  the  solution  that  is  compatible  with  the
receiver.
      In developing  objectives  and  tasks,  the  manager  must  develop  a
coordinated campaign, not just one or  a  series  of  messages.  There  must
ultimately be continuity across all messages so  that  consumers  can  learn
more easily.



Dictionary.


|Accomplish            |выполнять             |
|Advertise             |рекламировать         |
|Advertisement         |реклама               |
|Affirmative           |утвердительный        |
|aid                   |помощь                |
|aim                   |цель                  |
|appeal                |обращение             |
|appropriate           |соответствующий       |
|approval              |оправдание            |
|audience              |аудитория             |
|awareness             |осведомленность       |
|benefit               |выгода                |
|bias toward           |склоняться к          |
|brand                 |марка                 |
|captivating           |увлекательный         |
|commercial            |реклама               |
|compelling            |убедительный          |
|competition           |конкуренция           |
|conceive              |постигать             |
|conductive            |способствующий        |
|connotation           |дополнительное        |
|                      |значение              |
|constrain             |сдерживать            |
|constrict             |сократить             |
|controvertial         |спорный               |
|conventional          |обычный               |
|conсise               |сжатый                |
|copy                  |рекламный текст       |
|core                  |суть                  |
|creative              |творческий            |
|creativity            |творческий подход     |
|customer              |покупатель            |
|degrade               |приходить в упадок    |
|department            |отдел                 |
|derive                |происходить           |
|dimension             |направление           |
|disparage             |относиться с          |
|                      |пренебрежением        |
|dominant              |доминант              |
|elicit                |извлекать             |
|emphasise             |подчеркивать          |
|enlarge               |развивать             |
|evident               |очевидный             |
|execution             |исполнение            |
|expose                |подвергать            |
|extol                 |превозносить          |
|fragile               |хрупкий               |
|gasp                  |замирать              |
|generic               |общий                 |
|goal                  |задача                |
|guideline             |руководство           |
|hamper                |мешать                |
|hierarchy             |иерархия              |
|immerse               |погружать             |
|impact                |воздействие           |
|implicitly            |косвенным образом     |
|innovative            |изобретательный       |
|invention             |изобретение           |
|involve               |вовлекать             |
|justify               |определять            |
|layout                |формат                |
|life cycle            |жизненный цикл        |
|management            |управление            |
|market                |рынок                 |
|marketing             |маркетинг             |
|mediocre              |посредственный        |
|merit                 |достоинство           |
|misperceive           |неправильно понимать  |
|niche                 |ниша                  |
|nonconformity         |несоответствие        |
|objective             |задача                |
|on behalf             |в пользу              |
|parity                |соответствие          |
|particular            |определенный          |
|perceptual            |восприимчивый         |
|persuasive            |убедительный          |
|positioning           |позиционирование      |
|precede               |предшествовать        |
|promotion             |продвижение           |
|province              |область               |
|prudent               |предусмотрительный    |
|purchase              |покупка               |
|pursue                |преследовать          |
|quantifiable          |исчислимый            |
|rational              |рациональный          |
|regulation            |ограничение           |
|reject                |отвергать             |
|relevant              |актуальный            |
|represent             |предсавлять           |
|rigor                 |оцепенение            |
|share                 |доля                  |
|solely                |единственно           |
|solution              |решение               |
|stem                  |происходить           |
|stifle                |сдерживать            |
|stint                 |ограничивать          |
|stray                 |блуждать              |
|stumble across        |натыкаться            |
|subcontious           |подсознательный       |
|superb                |превосходящий         |
|superiority           |превосходство         |
|tangible              |осязаемый             |
|target market         |целевой рынок         |
|tradeoff              |торги                 |
|trigger               |спусковой крючок      |
|vendor                |продавец              |
|virtue                |достоинство           |
|visual                |визуальный            |



	

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