How to use dictionary



                                    Plan


1. Introduction
2. Types of dictionaries and their content
3. Kinds of dictionaries:
   1. general dictionaries;
   2. special dictionaries:
       1. bilingual dictionaries;
       2. explanatory dictionaries;
       3. etymological dictionaries;
       4. dictionaries of synonyms;
       5. phraseological dictionaries;
       6. pronouncing dictionaries;
       7. spelling dictionaries

4. How to use a dictionary. Dictionaries entries.
5. The encyclopedic material of some American dictionaries.
6. Conclusions
7. The list of literature.
Dictionaries  are tools, and they are much more complicated, and capable  of
many more uses then we suspect. All of us know students  need  encouragement
and guidance in the use of dictionaries.  Some  students  are  able  to  use
their dictionaries with anything like efficiency. Certainly  there  must  be
very few of those who come up through the grades  these  days  who  are  not
familiar with the details of looking up words in  dictionaries,  but  it  is
one thing to find a word in a dictionary and  quite  another  to  understand
fully information there given about it. Linguists and lexicographers have  a
matter  with  dictionaries.  Every  linguist  with  an   interest   in   the
quantitative properties of language will on  some  occasion  be  faced  with
some form of the ultimate question in  the  word  numbers  game:  How  many
words did Shakespeare use?,  How many  words  are  there  in  the  English
language? How many words should a dictionary have?  The  first  question,
at least, has a definite although not simple answer: Shakespeares  complete
works consist of a total of 884647 words of text containing  a  grand  total
of 29066 different words including proper names.  But on the  question  How
many words should a dictionary have it is very difficult to answer.   Every
dictionary has a different number of words. On the  contrary  lexicographers
have a task to record the meanings of words, the  task  of  arranging  these
meanings in the orderthey think will be of most help to those who use  their
work. Different editors solve  this  problem  of  arrangement  in  different
ways. In the prefatory part of any dictionary you will find some  indication
of the plan that has  been  followed  in  arranging  the  meanings.  In  the
Werriam-Webster dictionaries the meanings are arranged as far  as  possible,
in the order in wich they arose. In those dictionaries, the  first  meanings
given are the earliest a word is known to have  had,  and  the  more  modern
meanings come later. The arrangement of meanings is  difficult,  thats  why
the only safe course is to examine the forematter of the dictionary  to  see
what plan has been followed.
Dictionary is a book that contains a selected  list  of  words  arranged  in
alphabetical order. It explains their meanings and gives  information  about
them. In a dictionary a person can look up a word quickly, discover what  it
means and learn how it is prononced.
  Dictionaries give the meanings  of  many  kinds  of  words.  Most  modern
dictionaries describe the facts of  a  language  as  educated  speakers  and
writers  use  it.   They  are  called  descriptive  dictionaries  because  a
dictionary editor does not change  the  facts  of  a  language.  Many  older
dictionaries tried to prescribe rules, some of wich did not agree  with  the
way people commonly talked or wrote. These  books  are  called  prescriptive
dictionaries. Most general dictionaries include:
  1) the ordinary words of everyday life, such as bread, run and with;
  2)  literary words used as aggregation, despoil, incontrovertible;
  3) thechnical word, such as starboard, gene and ratio;
  4) words used chiefly on informal occasions, such as gap and wimp;
  5) words used in writing to give an old-fashioned flavor, such as  aweary
     and avaunt;
  6) words not used today but found in the writtings of some authors,  such
     as plaister for plaster;
  7) words or phrases form  other  languages,  such  as  coup  detat  from
     French, tofu from Japanese and barrio from Spanish.
  8) Idioms, such as split hairs and unter the thumb of;
  9) Abbreviations, such as U.S.A., Kans., and p.;

  10)Important propernames, such as Buddha and Jupiter.

  No dictionary records all the words of our  language.  In  fact,  no  one
knows exatly how many words  there  are.  Besides  ordinary  words  used  in
evereryday speech, the English language includes thousands  of  geaografical
names; hundreds of thousands of technical terms, including more than  750000
names of  inspects  alone.  New  words  are  coined  for  newscientifiv  and
technical discoveries, and slang words and specific vocabularies  constantly
spring up. As  nations  draw  closer  together  through  trade  and  travel,
satellite communication,  and  sharing  of  technology,  languages  tend  to
borrow more and more words from each other. That is why  dictionary  editors
must be selective in the words they decide to include.
    Most dictionaries tell us much more than just the  meanings  of  words.
Many list pronunciations, derivations, refixes  and  suffixes,  illustrative
quotations, synonyms and other information.  The  illustration  articles  in
dictionaries show in detail what dictionaries contain.
Dictionaries  may  be  clasified  as  general   dictionaries   and   special
dictionaries. A general dictionary contains information  on  everyday  words
such as it and the. But it  also  defines  many  technical  terms,  such  as
chromatografhy and columella. A specialized dictionary omits  most  everyday
terms, and limits itself to  information  on  words  used  in  a  particular
field, such as biology.
  General dictionaries range in size  from  small  pocket  dictionaries  to
large multivolume or table dictionaries. The number of  entries  in  general
dictionary depends, on its purpose. Each dictionary is  designed  to  answer
the questions of a certain type of reader. The World Book Dictioanry  is  an
example of a  dictionary  designed  for  family  use.  The  largest  general
dictionaries may contain over 400000 entries  when  a  dictionary  has  this
many entries, many absolete and technical terms are included. Other  general
dictionaries may have from 15000 entries to 200000 entries.
  Specialized  dictionaries  are  designed  to  give  more  information  in
particular fields than general dictionaries can.  Dictionaries of this  kind
can be divided into such group as:
  1) Explanatory dictionaries
  2) Etymological dictionaries
  3) Dictionaries of synonyms
  4) Phraseological dictionaries.

  Besides, such dictionaries can be mentioned as historical dialectal.
  Bilingual  or  translating  dictionaries  reresent  the  most   ordinary,
widespread type. They contain words and expressions of the  native  language
and  their  foreign  equivalents,  or   vice-versa.   (the   English-Russian
dictionary by V. K. Miller, etc)
  Explanatory dictionaries give definitions of word meanings. In fact to  a
certain extent they acquaint us with the history of vocabulary  development.
The explanation are given in the same language,  so  they  are  one-language
dictionaries, as it were. For example Websters  New  World  dictionary  of
the American language,  Websters  New  International  dictionary  of  the
English language  are usually considered  to  be  the  most  available  and
popular editions. But  the  greatest  authority,  naturally,  and  the  most
comprehensive is The New English dictionary on Historical Principles.
  Etymological dictionaries state the origin of  words.  If  borrowed,  the
source  of  borrowing  and  the  original  form  are  given,  with  all  the
subsequent changes in meaning and usage. If native, the Anglo-Dakon form  is
given together with the history of word development paralel forms  in  other
Gemanic languages. Skeats Etymological dictionary is believed to be one  of
the most widely used.
  Dictionaries of synonymes give either  groups  of  synonyms  without  any
explanations of difference  in  shades  of  meaning  or  usage,  as  concise
dictionaries usually do, or as in full-size synonymic dictionaries, one  can
find lengthy definitions of every synonym that the group contains with  even
directions as to how to use  them.  The  dictionary  of  this  kind  is  the
Websters dictionary of synonyms. It  does  not  give  any  etymological  or
historical  information  but  it  supplies  very  detailed   and   extensive
explanations of the subtlest shades of meaning that synonyms differ in.  The
lists  of  synonymes  are  much  more  exhaustive  than   in   the   earlier
dictionaries of  synonymes  (e.  g.  amiable,  lovable,  gracious,  cordial,
affable, genial,  warm-hearted,  warm,  responsive,  kind,  tender,  kindly,
begignant, benign).
  Phraseological dictionaries deal with phraseological group of  a  certain
language(English Idioms by W. G. Smith, English Idioms  and  how  to  use
them by W. McMordie etc)
  The  best  known  phonetical  dictionary  is  An   English   Pronouncing
Dictionary by Jones.  Among dialectal dictionaries the  Slang  Dictionary
by  Chatto  and  Windus  is  famous.  It  is  also  called   Ethymological,
Historical and Anecdotal.
  Before using a dictionary, one should become familiar  with  the  metods,
principles, and scope of the book because various dictionaries are  arranged
in different ways. Many American  dictionaries  are  arranged  in  different
ways.  Many  american  dictionaries  arrange  all  entries   in   a   single
alphabetical list. Others put abbreviations, geographical  and  biographical
names, and foreign words and phrases in separate lists, usually at  the  end
of the book. All good dictionaries today  have  introductory  sections  that
explain what the book contains and how it is arranged.
  First of all let us now look carefully at some dictionary entries  in  an
effort to secure from them all the information they contain. We shall  begin
by looking  closely  at  the  entry  anecdote  in  the  College  edition  of
Websters New World Dictionary.
  an.ec.dote(anik-dot), n, [Fr. ;ML. Anecdota;Gr. Anekdota, neut. Pl.  of
anecdots unpublished;an-, not+ekdotos