Category of number of the noun


2. Category of Number of the Noun.
Regular  one.
Plural  more than one.
Regular Plurals:
1. Nouns ending in vowels & voiced consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z])
2. Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s])
3. s,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz])
4. o: -es-hero-heroes. But:
-os:
after a vowel  bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos.
In proper names  Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos.
In abbreviations -  kilos, photos, pros(professional).
Also: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos,tangos, tobaccos.
In other cases the spelling is  -oes (tomatoes, echoes,  Negroes,  potatoes,
vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes)
oes/-os : cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s
5. Consonant+y  - -ies (sky-skies). But:
-ys
After vowels, except nouns ending quy(day-days, soliloquy-soliloquies)
In proper names: the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys
In compounds: stand-bys, lay-bys.
Penny:  pence-the British currency( ),  pennies-for  individual
coins.
6. f(e)
ves: wife-wives, life-lives, leaf-leaves, knife-knives, wolf-wolves,  calf-
calves, half-halves, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves.
s: other nouns(proof-proofs, chief-chefs, safe-safes,  cliff-cliffs,  gulf-
gulfs, dwarf-dwarfs, reef-reefs, grief-griefs
ves/-s:  scarf-scarfs/scarves, dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves, hoof-hoofs/hooves.
7. th - -ths (mouth-mouths)
8. in abbreviations - -s(M.P.-M.P.s) But: Ms(manuscript)-MSS,  p.(page)-pp.,
   Mr-
Irregular Plurals.
1. By vowel change (Man-men,  woman-women,  tooth-teeth,  foot-feet,  goose-
   geese, mouse-mice, louse-lice).
2. en (ox-oxen, child-children)
3. Identical
(sheep-sheep,  swine-swine(),   deer-deer,   grouse-grouse().
But: 2 variants: fish-fish/fishes, pike-pile/pikes,   trout-trout(s),  carp-
carp(s), salmon-salmon(s). The zero plural is more common to denote  hunting
quarries. (We caught  a  few  fish,  five  salmon);  the  regular  plural  
different individuals, species.
Nationality nouns in ese,  -ss:  Chinese,  Swiss.  And:  Englishmen  =  the
English, Dutchmen = the Dutch.
Latin  &  French  nouns:  series-series(,  ),   species-species(,
, ), corps [ko:]-corps[ko:z] (,  ).
Pair, couple, dozen, score(20), stone(6,35 kg), head  ():  2  dozen
of children, dozens of children.
4.
Loans of Greek origin -(-is -  -es:  basis-bases,  crisis-crises,  analysis,
thesis, parenthesis, axis[, , ], hypothesis, diagnosis; -on  
a: criterion  criteria, phenomenon, -a  ata: miasma-miasmata)
Loans of Latin origin (-us -  -i,  -ora,  -era:  stimulus-stimuli,  nucleus-
nuclei[],radius-radii[],  genus-genera[];  -a  -  -ae:   formula-
formulae(formulas),  antenna,   vertebra[];   -um   -   -a:   datum-
data[  ],  stratum-strata[],   erratum-errata[];
-es,-ix - -ices, -es: index-indices(indexes), appendix, matrix)
Other loan nouns  (-ean - -eaux: tableau-tableaux, bureau; -o -  -i:  tempo-
tempi)
2  variants  (memorandum  memoranda,   memorandums,   curriculum-curricula,
curriculums[    ],    formula-formulae,    formulas,     cherub-
cherubim[], cherubs, focus-foci, focuses)
Different  meaning  index-indexes-list  of  contents  of   books,   indices-
; genius-geniuses-men of talent, genii-, )

Plural in compound nouns
1. The 2nd component takes the plural form as  a  rule  (housewives,  tooth-
   brushes)
2. ful  at the end of the word(handfuls, spoonfuls)
3. man & woman the 1st components(men-servants, women-docters)
4. ending man  men(policeman-policemn) But:Germans, Romans(not compounds)
5. prepositional noun phrase where the  preposition  is  a  linking  element
   only   the  1st  noun  takes  the  plural  form(editors-in-chief-
   , mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chiefs-,  coats-
   of-mail-, men-of-war- )
6. compounds = conjunction as a linking element  the  plural  is  taken  by
   the 2nd noun (gin-and-tonics)
7.     compound=noun+preposition/adverb/adjective-the      1st      element-
   plural(passers-by,   lookers-on-,   courts-material--
   , attorneys-general- )
8. when the compound is a substantivized  phrase  which  doesnt  contain  a
   noun,  the  last  element  plural(forget-me-nots-,  breakdowns-
   , stand-bys-, grown-ups, close-ups- , pick-ups-
    , drop-outs-, go-betweens-)
Invariable nouns(cant change their number)
Singular invariable nouns
1. Non-count
Material(tea, sugar) But:cheeses-kind of cheese
Abstract-music, anger
2. Proper nouns The Thames, Henry
3. Some ening-s
news(10   oclock   news),   means-by    this    means(    ),
Gallows()
diseases(mumps-, measles-, rickets-, shingles-)
games(billiards, bowls-, dominoes, draughts)
some proper nouns(Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flanders,  Marseilles,  Naples,
Wales, The United Nations, the United States.
Nouns ending ics(classics, phonetics)
Plural invariable nouns
1. Marked
Names of toolsconsisting 2 equal parts(bellows-, binoculars,  breeches-
, braces- , flannels- ,  glasses,  pants-
, , pincers-, pliers-, ,  pyjamas,  scales,
scissors,  shorts,  spectacles-,  suspenders-,  tights-,
tongs-, trousers, tweezers-)
Miscellaneous nouns() (annals, antics, archives, arms,  ashes,  the
Commons, contents, customs, customs-duty,  customs-house,  earnings,  goods,
goods  train,  greens,  holidays,  manners,  minutes,  outskirts,  quarters,
stairs, suds, surroundings, thanks, troops, wages, whereabouts,  the  Middle
Ages)
Some proper nouns (the East Indies,  the  West  Indies,  the  Hibrides,  the
Highlands, the Midlands, the Netherlands)
2. Unmarked(nouns of multitude & collective):
C: the family was large, m: the family were fond of their house.
Ways of showing partition
A piece of, a loaf of, a stick of, a  bar  of,  a  sheet  of,  lump,  blade,
block, strip, grain, pile, heap, word, item, article, fit


2. Category of Case of the noun

Shows the relation of the noun with other words in the sentence
Common case-zero inflexion
Genitive case-apostrophe s(s)
1. Genitive
Pronunciation:
[z]-after vowels & voiced consonans-negros, dogs
[s]-after voiceless consonants-students
[iz]-after sibilants()- princes, judges; Marxs ideas
zero ending-girls, boys
with regular plural nouns(boys)
greek nouns in s(Socrates wife, Xerxes()
other names: 2 variants  Burns & Burnss poems
Compound  nouns-s  joined  to  the  final  component(the  editor-in  chiefs
office)
Group genitive(when s can be joined)
1. 2 persons possess or are related to smth they have in common(mom &  dads
   room, John & Marys car)
2. to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a  clause(the  Duke  of
   Norfolks  sister,  the  secretary  of  states  room,  the  man  I   saw
   yesterdays son)
3. to a noun(pronoun)+a pronoun group(someone elses benefit)
4. to a group ending in a numeral(in an hour or twos time)
The main meaning of the  genitive  case-possession,  Possessive  case,  main
modifications:
1. the idea of belonging: Johns coat
2. Different kinds of relations:
Relation of the whole to its part(Jons leg)
Personal or social relations(Johns wife)
3. subjective relations(The doctors arrival, the Chekhovs book)
4. authorship(Byrons poem)
5. objective relations(Johns arrest-he was arrested)
6. measure(an hours trip, a miles distance)
s lost the meaning of possession  (womans  work,  idiots  smile,  womens
college, angels eyes)

The use of genitive case & its equivalent of-phrase

with nouns denoting persons &  animals(Johns  idea,  swalows  nest).  With
other nouns-of+noun phrase
with nouns denoting time & distance(minute, moment,  year  &  substantivized
adverbs  -  today)todays   papers-,   the   papers   of   today-
 )
with the names of countries  &  towns(Britains  national  museum,  Canadas
population)
with   the   names   of   newspapers    denoting    different    kinds    of
organizations(companys plan, Guardians  analysis,  Geographical  Societys
gold medal)
with the nouns world, nation, country, city, town(the nations health)
with the nouns ship, boat, car(ships crew)
with nouns denoting planets(sun, moon, earth)(this earths life)
set expressions: to one hearts content(desire), at deaths door,  at  arms
length, out of harms way, a hairs breadth, a needles eye,  at  a  stones
throe, to move at a snails pace, at the waters edge
The syntactical function of the genitive attribute. Its always used  as  a
premodifier & sometimes called the depend genitive.
The absolute genitive  when the  genitive  case  is  not  followed  by  the
headword & when it stands for the whole noun phrase:
It is used:
to avoid repetition(our house is better than Marys(house))
after the preposition of(an old frend of my mothers)
to denote shops(the grocers, the bakers)
saints nameSt Pauls(cathedral)
places of residence(at my uncles, at Timothys)

Double genitive

My mothers fathers people
The boys half-hours run