Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine


 1.  Educational System in Great Britain
                              Types of Schools
    All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they
are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are
17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence
tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age
of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results
of the tests.
    State schools are divided into the following types:
 - Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who
   show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools
   now also have some technical courses.
 - Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses
   there are either commercial or technical.
 - Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there
   hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and
   learn some trade.
 - Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of
   secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories,
   machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and
   art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
    There are also many schools which the State doesnТt control. They are
private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them
are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
    After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further
education. Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called
УTechsФ) come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17.
The lectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at
4,45 in the afternoon.



                                                                      2

                                  British Schools
    Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free
nursery school education before that age. Primary education takes place in
infant schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools
(from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle
schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years.
Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is
compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily
up to three years longer.
    In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local
education authorities were have now completely changed over to
comprehensive schooling.
    At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several
subjects at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight
independent examining boards, most of them connected with the university.
This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education
establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education
(GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the
Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.
    A GCE of Advanced (УAФ) level was taken two years after the Ordinary
level exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many
forms of professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by
the more or less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.
    The private sector is running parallel to the state system of
education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most
private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents
seem prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The
reason is the believe that social advantages are gained from attending a
certain school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are
exclusive public schools like Eton college for boys and St. JamesТ school
for girls.



                                                                          3

             Universities and Colleges in Great Britain.
    There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three
types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities),
in the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester
universities, and the new universities. Some years ago there were also
polytechnics. After graduating from polytechnic a student got a degree, but
it was not a university degree. 31 formers polytechnics were given
university status in 1992.
    Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science.
Most degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4
years (including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are
longer (5-7 years).
    Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help
pay for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on
the income of their parents.
    Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.
    Students donТt usually have a job during term time because the lessons
called lectures, seminars, classes of tutorials (small groups), are full
time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.
    University life is considered Ђan experienceї. The exams are
competitive but the social life and living away from home are also
important. The social life is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties,
concerts, bars.
    There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges
offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some
professions connected with medicine.



                                      4

                      2.  Educational System in the USA

                   General Pattern of Education in the USA
    The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary
school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called  8Ч4  plan
organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by  nursery  schools  and
kindergartens. It is  followed  by  a  four-year  college  and  professional
schools.  This  traditional  pattern,  however,  has  been  varied  in  many
different ways. The 6Ч3Ч 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school,  a
three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school.  Another
variation is a 6Ч6 plan organization,  with  a  six-year  elementary  school
followed        by        a        six-year        secondary         school.

    American education provides a program for children,  beginning  at  the
age of 6 and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the  states,  and  to
18 in others.
    The elementary school in the United States is generally  considered  to
include  the  first  six  or  eight  grades  of  the  common-school  system,
depending upon the organization that has been  accepted  for  the  secondary
school. It has been called the  "grade  school"  or  the  "grammar  school".

           There is no single  governmental  agency  to  prescribe  for  the
American school system, different types of organization  and  of  curriculum
are tried out.
    The length of the school year varies among the states.  Wide  variation
exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice  is  to  have
school in session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from  1:00  to  3:30
in the afternoon, Monday through  Friday.  The  school  day  for  the  lower
grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour  shorter.  Most  schools  require
some homework to be done by  elementary  pupils.  Elementary  Schools,  High
Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning



          5


    Elementary    Schools,    High    Schools    and     Institutions     of

                                                         Higher     Learning

    There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is
followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often  the  last
two years of  elementary  and  the  first  years  of  secondary  school  are
combined into a junior high school.
    The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in  September
and sometimes a shorter one in spring.  There  are  slight  variations  from
place to place. Students enter the  first  grade  at  the  age  of  six  and
attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of  sixteen  or  until
the student has finished the eighth grade.
    The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally
larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A  small
town generally has several elementary schools and one high school.  In  some
rural communities the one-room country school house still exists.  Here  may
be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one  through  eight,  all
taught by the same teacher.
    Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the
elementary school. During the four-year  high  school  program  the  student
studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each  of  these
subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the  student
usually has classes in physical education, music, and art  several  times  a
week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work  of
the entire year. Students must complete  a  certain  number  of  courses  in
order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.
    Institutions of higher learning  supported  by  public  funds  are  not
absolutely free. The state  colleges  and  universities  charge  a  fee  for
tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from  outside
the state. Working one's way through college is commonplace.
    Usually  there  is  no  admission  examination  required  by  a   state
university for those  who  have  finished  high  school  within  the  state.
Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies  is  necessary,  however,
and some  state  universities  require  a  certain  scholastic  average,  or
average of high school grades.
    Private colleges and universities, especially  the  larger,  well-known
ones  such  as  Harvard,  Princeton,  and  Yale,   have   rigid   scholastic
requirements for entrance, including an examination.



6

                       Higher Education Institutions
    It has become common for the college program to be divided  into  broad
fields, such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the  sciences
and mathematics, and the fine arts .Many colleges require all  freshmen  and
sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in  each  of  three  fields.
Certain Courses, such as English or history, may be required for  all,  with
some election permitted in the other fields.
    Higher educational institutions usually are  governed  by  a  board  of
regents or a board of trustees.
    The executive head of a college or a university is usually  called  the
president. The various colleges or schools which take up  a  university  are
headed by deans. Within  a  school  or  college  there  may  be  departments
according to subject matter fields,  each  of  which  may  be  headed  by  a
professor who is designated as department head or  chairman.  Other  members
of  the  faculty  hold  academic  ranks,  such  as   instructor,   assistant
professor, associate professor, and professor. Graduate  students  who  give
some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.
Professional education  in  fields  such  as  agriculture,  dentistry,  law,
engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued  in  professional
schools which may be part of a university or may  be  separate  institutions
which confine their instruction to a single profession.  Often  two,  three,
or four years  of  pre-professional  liberal  arts  education  are  required
before  admission  to  a  professional  school.  Three  to  five  years   of
specialized  training  lead  to  professional  degrees  such  as  Doctor  of
Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.



                                      7


                 Private and State Colleges and Universities
    Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose  of
providing a literate  ministry1  for  colonial  churches.  It  was  a  small
institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and  60  in  1660.  It  soon
became more than a theological training school2 and established itself as  a
liberal arts college. The next institution of  higher  learning  established
in the American colonies was the College of William and Mary,  which  opened
in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in  the  next
century, but all of them remained small schools for long  periods.  Students
entered at the  age  of  14  and  remained  until  they  were  18,  and  the
curriculum, while rigidly academic  and  classic  was  by  modern  standards
rather secondary in nature.
    Private colleges and universities were established in  various  states.
The first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in  1819.
Some  state  universities  have  large  endowment  funds1  which  provide  a
substantial portion of their support. Other sources of  income  are  student
fees, gifts and endowments.
    In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into  two  broad
fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may  be  further
subdivided  into  undergraduate  and  graduate  levels.  The  liberal   arts
program, on the undergraduate  level,  may  be  a  two-year  junior  college
course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of  Bachelor  of  Arts  or
Bachelor of Science. The four-year  course  is  usually  subdivided  into  a
lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting  of  the
two first years, and the upper division, which is the last  two  years.  The
first two years continue the general education and specialization begins  in
the third year.



                                      8

                      3. Educational System in Ukraine.

    Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right
to education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. ItТs ensured by
compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education
establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and
evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.
    Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The
stages of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-
7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive,
and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of
secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay
at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together
comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a Ђcore curriculumї of
academic subjects, such asЕ
    After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which
offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a
technical field, or a profession.
    After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a
gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take
competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or
universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for
undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and
writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral
degree.
    Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are
in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has
a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate
and doctoral degrees.
    The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough
a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to
decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial
mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All
secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been
funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying
primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying
departments.



                                             9

    4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class
|How do you evaluate         |      Like  |DonТt like   |Indifferent   |
|the following               |(number of  |(number of   |(number of    |
|                            |pupils)     |pupils)      |pupils)       |
|School                      |      27    |       6     |        3     |
|Subjects:                   |            |             |              |
|     Literature             |       21   |       5     |        12    |
|     Mathematics            |       11   |       23    |         5    |
|     History                |       19   |       7     |        12    |
|     Geography              |       29   |       6     |         3    |
|     Biology                |       23   |       10    |         6    |
|     English                |       32   |       4     |         2    |
|     Music                  |       25   |       12    |         2    |
|     Art                    |       20   |       11    |         8    |
|Out-of-class activities     |       24   |        4    |         11   |
|Sports/Gym classes          |       22   |       13    |         4    |
|School library              |       27   |       10    |         2    |
|School canteen              |       23   |        3    |         13   |
|Learning to get along with  |       25   |        9    |          5   |
|others                      |            |             |              |
|Making friends              |       34   |       0     |          5   |



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               5. Used Literature:
    1. Internet



     11

                        Contents
    1. Educational System in Great Britain
     . Types of Schools
     . British Schools
     . Universities and Colleges in Great Britain
    2.Educational System in the USA
     . General Pattern of Education in the USA
     . Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher learning
     . Higher Education Institutions
     . Private and State Colleges
    3. Educational System in Ukraine
    4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class
    5. Used Literature



                                                                      1



    Educational System
    in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine.



                                                                 Boyko
    Maksim
                                                                   Form 8-V
                                                     Ukrainian Grammar
                                                                  School #6


	

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