Food



Theme:                 “Food”


                                                    Student: Sophy (IX form)

                                                     Teacher: Smirnova T. V.



                               Kostanai, 2002



                                  P L A N:

1. Food celebrates life.

2. Food nourishes language.

3. Food for different cultures:

     a. From land and sea

     b. From high in the mountains

     c. Meals in Britain

     d. American food and drink

     e. Kazakh traditional dishes

4.  Food is symbolic.

5. Food as a fad or cult.

6. Plan a healthful diet.

7. Food is the staff of life.



         “Every man is the builder of a temple called his body (1817-1862) ”

                                                        Thoreau, Henry Davia


   English  will  have  become  an  important  tool  for  communication  and
discovery rather than just another class to attend. And  we  would  like  to
look at the all-important topic, Food.

Food Celebrates Life.[1]

   Have you ever noticed how much of our life is centered on food?  Look  at
all the meetings held, decisions made, and mergers consummated over a  meal:
power breakfast, power  lunch,  dinners,  banquets,  receptions,  and  those
endless toasts. Consider all the celebrations where food  is  all-important:
weddings, birthdays, religious feast days, national holidays, etc.  Food  is
the great icebreaker when people meet for pleasure or business. Food  is  at
the center of many of our important activities.

Food Nourishes Language.[2]

   Because of this importance, much  of  our  language  (regardless  of  the
language) contains references to food. These references  conjure  up  images
worth a thousand words each. The idiom page contains several  references  to
food and shows how these are used in a  non-food-related  discussion.  Think
about the idioms and expressions in your native  language  related  to  food
and how and when you use them. Do  you  use  food  expressions  to  describe
someone’s physical characteristics (e.g., He’s as skinny as a  string  bean;
his belly shakes like a bowl full of  jelly.);  or,  to  describe  someone’s
personality (e.g., Harry is a cre3am puff; she’s as sweet as sugar.) or,  to
describe a situation or  activity  (e.g.,  Something  is  fishy  here;  That
crossword puzzle is a piece of cake.). How we use food  expressions  depends
on how we perceive the food, or the culture associated with the food.

Food For Different Cultures.[3]

   Have  you  ever  stopped  to  really think  about   what   you  and  your
family eat


everyday and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people  eat?  In
the movie Indiana Jones and Temple of Doom, there are two  scenes  in  which
the two characters are offered meals from a  different  culture.  One  meal,
meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The second meal was  a  lavish
banquet that featured such  delicacies  as  roasted  beetles,  live  snakes,
eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some cultures eat  such
things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats,  dog  meat,  horsemeat,  bats,
animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all sorts.
   Often the differences among cultures in the foods they  eat  are  related
to the differences in geography and local resources. People  who  live  near
water ( the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish  and  crustaceans.
People who live in  colder  climates  tend  to  eat  heavier,  fatty  foods.
However, with the development of  a  global  economy,  food  boundaries  and
differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every  continent
expect Antarctica, and tofu and yogurt are served all over the world.



Mexico: Beans and rice[4]
Corn tortillas (2 servings)
Black beans (2 servings)
Rice (2 servings)
Salsa

Morocco: Couscous4
Couscous (wheat pasta)
Carrots
Zucchini
Peppers
Chickpeas
Lamb

India: Sag paneer4



Indian cheese (2 servings)
Spinach
Peppers
Oil
Onion
Rice (2 servings)
Chapati (wheat bread)

Italy: Spaghetti[5]
Spaghetti (2 servings)
Tomato sauce (2 servings)
Parmesan cheese
Chicken breasts, baked

Japan: Tempura5
Shrimp
Eggplant
Peppers
Mushrooms
Flour
Oil
Egg white
Rice (2 servings)

USA: Barbecue chicken and potato salad5
Chicken breast, barbecue
Potatoes
Mayonnaise
Onion
Peppers
Corn (1 ear)



                             What do people eat?

   Many factors determine the foods that people eat. Geography and  climate,
tradition and history: They all go into our meals. In  European  country  of
Spain and the Asian country of Nepal, different cultures and customs  affect
what people eat.

From Land and Sea.[6]

   Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula,  on  the  western  edge  of
Europe. It is nearly surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the  Mediterranean
Sea.
   Spain’s dry climate and  poor  soil  make  farming  difficult.  Extensive
irrigation allows farmers to raise  strawberries  and  rice  in  dry  areas.
Vegetables and citrus trees grow on  the  coastal  plains,  and  olives  and
grapes grow in the river valleys.
   The grasslands of the large dry central  plateau  are  used  for  grazing
sheep, goats, and cattle. People in  this  region  eat  roasted  and  boiled
meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausage  called  chorizo.  And
people all over the country eat lots of seafood from the  Atlantic  and  the
Mediterranean.
   One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels, lobster,  or
chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron  rice.  Peasants  were
the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But  this  dish
and  others  also  reflect  Spain’s  history  of  traders,  conquerors,  and
explorers who brought a variety of food by land and by sea.
   Phoenicians from the Middle East introduced  grapes  to  Spain  in  about
1100B.C. Hundreds of years later, Romans brought olives  from  what  is  now
Italy. In the 8th  century  A.D.,  Moors  (Muslim  Arabs  and  Berbers  from
Africa) introduced shortgrain rice and za faran,  or  saffron  –  the  spice
that colors rice yellow.  And  in  the  1400s,  1500s,  and  1600s,  Spanish
explorers and traders returned home with nutmeg and  cloves  from  the  East
Indies: and peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate  from  the  Americas.


From High in the Mountains.[7]



   Nepal is a landlocked country in  the  Himalayas,  the  highest  mountain
range in the world. Nepal has three distinct geographical zones –  lowlands;
hills, mountains,  and  valleys;  and  the  Great  Himalayan  Range  –  with
subtropical to alpine-arctic temperatures and wide variations in  vegetation
and animal life.
   Most people in Nepal are farmers. They grow  fruits,  fruits,  and  other
crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are the  warmest.  Rice  and  corn
grow in terraced, or stairlike, fields  in  the  cooler  hill  regions.  And
potatoes and barley are the staple, or chief, crops  at  higher  elevations,
where temperatures are the coolest.
   The Nepal raise goats, cattle, and  yaks  for  dairy  products.  Meat  is
eaten mostly on  special  occasions.  Religious  rules  affect  which  meats
people in  Nepal  eat:  Hindus,  who  make  up  almost  90  percent  of  the
population, do not eat beef, and Muslims  do  not  eat  pork.  The  Buddhist
religion prohibits the killing of any  animals  but  allows  the  eating  of
meat, so Buddhists hire butchers to slaughter animals for food.
   A typical family meal in Nepal might include daal bhat (rice with  lentil
gravy) or chapati (a flatbread), steamed vegetables, and achaar (a paste  of
spiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of  the  Nepalese  people  live  in
rural areas. They often lack electricity for refrigerators or  for  cooking,
so they rely on dried foods such as grains, lentils, and beans.
   People carry traditions and foods with  them  when  they  move  from  one
place to another. You  might  recognize  examples  when  you  look  at  your
classmates’ special  family  foods  or  at  specialty  restaurants  in  your
community.

Meals in Great Britain.[8]

   The two features of life in England that  possibly  give  visitors  their
worst impressions are the English weather and English cooking.
   A traditional English breakfast is a very big  meal  –  sausages,  bacon,
eggs, tomatoes, and  mushrooms.  People who  do have a full   breakfast  say
that  it  is



 quite good. The writer Somerset Maugham once  gave  the  following  advice:
“If you want to eat well  in  England,  eat  three  breakfasts  daily.”  But
nowadays it is often a rather hurried and informal meal.  Many  people  just
have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with  marmalade,  jam,  or  honey.
Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges  and  jam
is made from other fruits. The traditional breakfast  drink  is  tea,  which
people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often  instant  coffee,
which is made with just hot  water.  Many  visitors  to  Britain  find  this
coffee disgusting!
   For many people lunch is a  quite  meal.  In  cities  there  are  lot  of
sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread  they  want
– brown, white, or a roll – and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish  to
go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food  both  hot  and  cold.
School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just  take  a  snack
from home – a sandwich,  a  drink,  some  fruit  and  perhaps  some  crisps.
British kids eat more sweets than any other nationality.
   “Tea” means two things. It is a  drink  and  a  meal!  Some  people  have
afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of  tea.  Cream
teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.
   The evening meal is the main meal  of  the  day  for  many  people.  They
usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and  8.00,  and  often  the  whole
family eats together.
   On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast  meat,
either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables,  and  gravy.
Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juice.
   The British like food from  other  countries,  too,  especially  Italian,
French, Chinese, and Indian. The British have in fact always  imported  food
from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was  a  major
influence on British cooking.  Another   important  influence   on   British
cooking was of course



the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and  green  grass,
and means that we are able to produce  some   of  the  finest  varieties  of
meat, fruit and vegetables, which don’t need  fancy  sauces  or  complicated
recipes to disguise their taste. People often get take-away meals – you  buy
the food at the restaurant and than bring it home to eat. Eating in  Britain
is quite international!

British Cuisine.[9]

   Some people criticize English food. They say it’s  unimaginable,  boring,
tasteless, it’s chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables.
   The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of  flavour  that  British
haven’t had to invent sauces to  disguise  their  natural  taste.  What  can
compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with  butter?
Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when  with  just  one  or
two herbs it is absolutely delicious?
   If you ask foreigners to name some typically English  dishes,  they  will
probably say “Fish and chips” then  stop.  It  is  disappointing,  but  true
that, there is no tradition in England of  eating  in  restaurants,  because
the food doesn’t lend itself to such preparations. English cooking is  found
at home so it is  difficult  to  find  a  good  English  restaurant  with  a
reasonable prices.
   In most cities  in  Britain  you’ll  find  Indian,  Chinese,  French  and
Italian restaurants. in London you’ll also find Indonesian, Mexican,  Greek…
Cynics will say that this is because English have no  “cuisine”  themselves,
but this is not quite the true.

English breakfast.[10]

   All people in the world have breakfast, and most  people  eat  and  drink
the same things for breakfast. They may eat different  things  for  all  the
other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most  people  have  the  same
things to eat and drink – Tea or Coffee, Bread and butter, Fruit.
   Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat at



breakfast time, but England is a cold country. It is bad  to  eat  meat  for
breakfast in hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if  you  eat  meat
for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that  is  bad  in  a  hot
country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time, for  tea
makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it
   The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, bread and  Butter,  fruit.  That  is
the usual breakfast of most people in the world.

How tea was first drunk in Britain.11

   By the time tea was first introduced into  this  country  (1660),  coffee
had already been drunk for several years.
   By 1750 tea had become the  most  popular  beverage  for  all  types  and
classes of people – even though  a  pound  of  tea  cost  a  skilled  worker
perhaps a third of his weekly wage!

Tea ware.

   Early tea cups had no handles,  because  they  were  originally  imported
from China. Chinese cups didn’t (and still don’t) have handles.
   As tea drinking grew in popularity, it led to a demand for more and  more
tea ware. This resulted in the rapid  growth  of  the  English  pottery  and
porcelain industry, which  not  long  after  became  world  famous  for  its
products.

The tea break.

   Nowadays, tea drinking is no longer a proper, formal, «social»  occasion.
We don't dress up to “go out to tea” anymore. But one tea ceremony is  still
very important in Britain – the Tea Break! Millions of people  in  factories
and offices look forward to their tea breaks in the  morning  and  afternoon
Things to do.
  1) Make a display of as many pictures, cut  from  magazines.  As  you  can
     showing different kinds of tea pots and tea cups.
  2) Design your own kind of tea pots and tea cups.

American food and drink.[11]



    The  popular  view  outside  the  U.S.A.  that  Americans   survive   on
cheeseburgers, Cokes and  French  fries  is  as  accurate  as  the  American
popular view that the British live on  tea  and  fish’n’chips,  the  Germans
only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the  French  on  red  wine  and
garlic.
   This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised  abroad  as
“American food” is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation.  American  beef,
for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows  that  are
raised mainly for milk production.  As  a  result,  American  beef  is  more
tender and tasted better than  what  is  usually  offered  as  an  “American
steak” in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato that  comes  hot
and whole in foil often lacks the most important element, the  famous  Idaho
potato. This has different texture and skin that comes from the climate  and
soil in Idaho.
   Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many  of
the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue sauce  from
the Southside of Chicago has its  own  fire  and  soul.  The  Texas  have  a
competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes  are  kept
secret).
   America has two strong advantages when it comes to  food.  The  first  is
that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always  been  well  supplied
with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at relatively  low
prices. This is one reason why steak or beef  roast  is  probably  the  most
“typical” American food;  it  has  always  been  more  available.  But  good
Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do  hickory-smoked  or  sugar-
cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster,  and  other  seafood  such  as  crabs  or
clams.
   In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and  vegetable
growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit,  oranges,  lemons,  melons,
cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce, avocados,  and  cranberries
do not have  to  be  imported.  This is   one   reason   why  fruit   dishes
and  salads  are so



 common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both  as  a  hobby
and as a way to save money, from the days when most Americans were  farmers.
They also help to keep fresh food on the table.
   The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have  brought
with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of  their  countries
and cultures. The variety of foods and styles  is  simply  amazing.  Whether
Armenian,  Basque,  Catalonian,  Creole,  Danish,  French,  German,   Greek,
Hungarian, Italian, traditional  Jewish,  Latvian,  Mexican,  Vietnamese  or
what have you, these traditions are now also at home in the U.S.A.
   There seem to be four trends in America at present  which  are  connected
with foods and dining. First, there has  been  a  notable  increase  in  the
number of  reasonably priced restaurants which offer specialty foods.  These
include those that specialize in  many  varieties  and  types  of  pancakes,
those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the  many  that  are
buffets or salad bars. Secondly,  growing  numbers  of  Americans  are  more
regularly going out to eat in restaurants. One reason is that they  are  not
many American women do not feel that their  lives  are  best  spent  in  the
kitchen. They would rather pay a professional chef and  also  enjoy  a  good
meal. At the same time, there is an increase in fine cooking as a hobby  for
both men and women. For some  two  decades  now,  these  have  been  popular
television series on all types and styles of  cooking,  and  the  increasing
popularity can easily be  seen  in  the  number  of  best-selling  specialty
cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize in often  exotic  cooking
devices and spices.
   A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans  in
general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and  grain  foods,  fruit  and
vegetables, fish and salads  are  emphasized  instead  of  heavy  and  sweet
foods. Finally, there is the  international  trend  to  “fast  food”  chains
which sell pizza,  hamburgers,    Mexican   foods,   chicken,   salads   and
sandwiches,  seafoods  and



 various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent  this
trend and while, as many be expected,  restaurants  also  dislike  it,  many
young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor, continue to buy  and
eat fast foods.

Hot Dogs.[12]

   Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the  frankfurter  its  nickname  in
1906. Munching on  a  frank  at  a  baseball  game,  he  concluded  that  it
resembled a dachshund’s body and put that whimsy into a  drawing,  which  he
captioned “Hot dog”.
   Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon,  but  the  hot  dog  was
brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real  Frankfurter  –
Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand  in  New
York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls – first for  a  dime  apiece,
later, a nickel.
   The frank appealed to busy Americans, who –  as  an  early  19th  century
comment put it – tend to live  by  the  maxim  of  “gobble,  gulp  and  go”.
Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.

Hamburgers.12

   Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the  St.  Louis  Fair  in
1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s,  when
the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty  at  a  very
low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared,  quickly  caught  on  as
family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and burger chains  offer
Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.
   The history of the hamburger dates back  to  medieval  Europe.  A  Tartar
dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and  onion  juice  was  brought
from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. The lightly  broiled  German
chopped-beef  cake,  with  pickles  and  pumpernickel  on  the   side,   was
introduced to America in  the  early  1800s  by  German  immigrants  in  the
Midwest.

Doughnuts.12

   It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans  who  introduced
the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it  was  a  festive
food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.



   Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson  Gregory,  a
lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that  her  fried
cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch before  they
were cooked.
   During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them  to  the  troops,
doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee and  doughnuts
become a national institution. Stores sell  them  plain,  sugared,  frosted,
honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Apple pie[13]

   At its best, with a savory filling and crisp,  light-brown  crust,  apple
pie has long been favorite on American tables.
   Apples and apple  seems  were  among  the  precious  supplies  the  early
colonists brought to the New World. The  first  large  apple  orchards  were
planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to  Rhode
Island  in  1635,  he  developed  the  tart  Rhode  Island  Greening,  still
considered one of  America’s finest apple pies.
   As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every  meal.
Garnished with a chunk of cheese,  it  was  a  favorite  colonial  breakfast
dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that Yale  College  in
New Haven served it every night at supper for more than 100 years.
   America’s love affair with  apple  pie  has  remained  constant.  Today’s
housewives, pressed for time, can  shortcut  the  tradition  by  buying  the
pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variation on  the  good
old original are available, but the classical apple pie,  irresistible  when
topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered with vanilla ice  cream,
is still America’s favorite.

Potato chips.13

   George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at  Moon’s  Lake  House
in  Saratoga  Springs,  New  York, in  the  mid-19th  century,   was   irked
when  a



finicky  dinner  guest  kept  sending  back  his  French   fried   potatoes,
complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the  potatoes
into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in  oil.  He  had  a  dishful  of
crisp “Saratoga chips” presented to the guest, who was  delighted  with  the
new treat.
   Potato chips became the  specialty  of  Moon’s  Lake  House  and,  later,
America’s crunchiest between-meal snack.

Coca-Cola.14

   America’s best known  soft  drink  was  first  concocted  by  an  Atlanta
pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was  cooked  up  by  John  S.  Pemberton  from
extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then  organized  the  Pemberton
Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water was sold  in  a
local drug-store for 5 cents a glass.
   Sales were slow until in 1887  a  prosperous  Atlanta  druggist,  Asa  G.
Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula – then  as  now  a  carefully  guarded
secret – and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.
   Advertisement stressing the words “delicious” and “refreshing” and  carry
coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in  consumption.  A  system
of independent local  bottling  companies  was  developed,  and  the  flared
bottle, familiar worldwide and  said  to  resemble  the  hobble  skirt,  was
designed in 1916.
   In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to  a  group  headed  by
Ernest Woodruff. Under  his  son,  Robert  W.  Woodruff,  Coca-Cola  rapidly
expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than  150  million  Cokes  a  day
were sold in country all over the world.
   Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft  drinks,  but  it  is
still one of the symbols of the United States.

Kazakh traditional dishes.15

   The mode of life of people, traditional  craft,  interrelations.  Customs
and traditions  are,  perhaps,  well   comprehended    through   traditional
dishes.  The



methods of cooking, which the Kazakh people used were  closely  linked  with
the culture and mode of life. The table manners of nomads,  filled  with  so
many customs, rituals, special behavior find its  place  in  our  time.  The
strict nomadic life laws have created moral and ethic norm. The  whole  clan
and tribe shared the joys and sorrows of life, any unexpected  traveler  was
an honored guest. Any steppe inhabitant knew, that he was  a  welcome  guest
and had a right to his share. This steppe tradition  was  strictly  observed
and is still observed today by the host.  Some  time  later  this  violation
merited a sort of punishment. That explains  why  every  host  regarded  the
ritual of hospitality as sacred rule and welcomed  guests  warmly  and  with
all attention and kindly saw them off with good wishes.
   The main traditional dish of Kazakh is besbarmak.  It  is  mostly  served
for the guests and  eaten  by  hands  (bes  barmak  –  means  five  finger).
Besbarmak is usually cooked of fat mutton and parts  of  smoked  horse  meat
and horse  delicacies  like  kazy  and  shyzhyk.  The  meat  is  boiled  and
separately is boiled thin paste. Boiled parts of meat are put on  the  paste
and spiced with a special flavoring called tuzduk.  As  the  custom  demands
the host serves the meal in special crockey – tabak.  The  bas-tabak,  which
is placed before the most honourable guests is  used  to  serve  the  mutton
head, zhambas, horse meat delicacy  and  other  fatty  parts.  The  esteemed
guest (usually the oldest one) cuts bit and part from the  head  and  offers
them to the other guests at the table. The secret of distribution  of  parts
of the meat from the  head  lies  in  traditional  wishes.  When  given  the
palate, it expresses the wish – “be wise and eloquent”, the larynx – a  gift
to sing, skin of forehead – “be the first among equals”.  Meanwhile  one  or
two dzhigits (young man), sitting next to the esteemed guest  start  cutting
the boiled parts of meat to  pieces  and  the  dish  is  again  spiced  with
tuzdyk. The guests are offered to help themselves to  the  dish.  The  youth
and children usually sit at sides of  the  table  dastarkhan.  They  receive
meat directly



 from the elders. The custom is called asatu and symbolized  the  desire  of
the youth to experience the long and good life the elders have  experienced.
When all the meat and sorpa ( soup with large fat content) have  been  eaten
and drank, the most respected guest thanks the hostess on behalf of all  the
guests and blesses the hosts of that house.
   In our days the main features of this  old  ritual  and  table  etiquette
exist, are carefully kept, followed and passes to their traditions.

Food is Symbolic.16

   Throughout history,  food  has  been  used  as  a  symbol  of  wealth  or
gratitude, or to demonstrate position and power. In  some  cultures,  eating
lavish and exotic meals is a sign of wealth and power, whereas  eating  only
the basic foods is a of  sign belonging to a  more  common  class.  In  some
cultures, the offer of  a  glass  of  cool,  clean  water  is  the  greatest
compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures, whenever you  receive
s guest, whether for business or pleasure, you must offer them something  to
eat or drink: the more lavish the offering signifies the amount  of  respect
or honor you give that person. Diet is not a consideration.
   For centuries, food has been a key element  in  religious  rituals.  Food
was used as offering to the gods and their  high  priests  and  priestesses.
Food has been considered  a form of tithing to a church or  religious  sect.
Certain foods such as lamp, bread, and bitter herbs  are  religious  symbols
in some ceremonies.
   The sharing of food  demonstrates  acceptance,  friendship,  family,  and
love. To be invited to “break bread” with a family, in many  cultures  shows
respect and is a sign of friendship and acceptance. Literature  is  full  of
examples of lovers using food to show their devotion and  respect  foe  each
other: one of the most famous being the  line  from  the  Rubaiyal  of  Omar
Khayyam, “ A Jug of Wine, a  Loaf  of  Bread  –  and  Thou…”  in  the  West,
chocolate and sweets  have  long  been  a  symbolic  exchange  of  affection
between  lovers.  So,  why  do  we  eat  the  things  we  do?  First,  let’s
established that not everything we like to meat is all  that  good  for  us,
unfortunately.  For  example,  there  is  much  debate  over  the  value  of
chocolate – yes, it does have  some  redeeming  qualities  aside  from  just
tasting wonderful.

Food as a Fad or Cult.17

   Food has often found a niche for itself in  popular  culture.  Eating  or
entertaining with certain foods has often been  a  fad  or  cult.  Whichever
group you associate with or aspire to be like will  dictate  which  fad  you
follow. For example, in the late “70s and 80s in the U.S., salads  were  the
“in” food for the yuppie crowd (the  young,  upwardly-mobile  group).  Salad
bars (restaurants where salad is the primary  food)  sprang  up  everywhere.
There were so many types of salads,  garnishes,  and  salad  dressings  that
were invented, it was impossible to keep up with them all.
   Of course many people ate salads because they were  on  diets.  Thin  was
“in” and so everyone who was “in” or aspiring to  be  “in”  wanted  to  lose
weight. Actually, throughout most of the ’80s and  90s  there  has  been  an
obsession with dieting. Now, however, dieting is not a  politically  correct
word. There are so many schemes and foods out in the stores  for  people  to
use lose weight; there are even substances that promise  if  you  take  them
you can eat all you want and still lose weight.
   Aside form diets and salads, there are the foods that people eat  because
their favorite athlete, musician, or actor  eats  that  brand  or  kind  for
food. The cultural icons over the last several years have been exploited  to
promote the sale of different foods or food  substitutes.  Whatever  Michael
Jordan, Mel Gibson, or  Oprah  Winfrey  drink  and  eat,  the  ardent  fans,
wannabes and admirers worldwide try to eat and drink.  People  don’t  always
pay attention to how truly nutritious something is; if the in-crowed or  the
cultural icon they aspire to be like eat it, they will get it.  Pop  culture
is a powerful force.

Food is the Staff of life.18

   Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the  right
kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life.  Your  needs  for
different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone needs the  three
key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the  necessary  building
blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and  protein.  Unfortunately,
in our world today, not every one has access to all of these all  the  time.
World hanger is a global problem that needs to be addressed by all nations.
   The right type and kind of foods the body needs  to  grow,  develop,  and
stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is  key
to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you  know  what  you  eat
every



 day? Why do you think you eat the foods you  eat?  Eating  the  right  food
everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes  our  spirits,
our creativity and thinking, and our language  and  interaction  with  other
people.


                         What Counts as a serving?19

  The amount of food that counts as a serving is listed. If you eat a large
portion, count it as more than one serving. For example, ˝ cup of cooked
pasta counts as one serving in the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group. If
you eat 1 cup of pasta that would be 2 servings. If you eat less than ˝
cup, count it as part of a serving.

   For mixed foods, do the best you can to decide the food groups and to
estimate the servings of the main ingredients. Pizza would count in the
Bread Group (crust), the Milk Group (cheese), and the Vegetable Group
(tomato). Beef stew would count in the Meat Group and Vegetable Group.



|Bread, Cereal,  |            |   |Natural cheddar |1 ˝ oz         |
|Rice, and Pasta |            |   |cheese          |               |
|Group           |            |   |Processed cheese|2 oz           |
|Bread           |1 slice     |1  |                |1 ˝ oz         |
|Hamburger roll, |1           |2  |Mozzarella, part|               |
|bagel, English  |            |   |skim            |˝ cup          |
|muffin          |            |   |Ricotta, part   |˝ cup          |
|Tortilla        |1           |1  |skim            |               |
|Rice, pasta,    |˝ cup       |1  |Cottage cheese, |˝ cup          |
|cooked          |3-4         |1  |4 % fat         |˝ cup          |
|Pain crackers,  |1oz         |1  |Ice cream       |˝ cup          |
|small           |2           |2  |Ice milk        |               |
|Breakfast cereal|            |   |Frozen yogurt   |               |
|                |1 large(2oz)|2  |Meat, Poultry,  |               |
|Pancakes, 4-in  |            |2  |Fish, Dry Beans,|               |
|diameter        |1medium     |2  |Eggs, and Nuts  |3 oz           |
|Croissant       |(2oz)       |1  |Group           |               |
|Doughnut        |1medium     |1  |Lean meat,      |3 oz           |
|Danish          |(2oz)       |2  |poultry, fish,  |               |
|Cake, Frosted   |1 average   |   |cooked          |3 oz           |
|Cookies         |slice       |1  |Ground beef,    |2 slices (1 oz)|
|Pie, fruit,     |2 medium    |1  |cooked          |               |
|2-crust         |1 average   |   |Chicken, with   |1 (1 oz)       |
|Vegetable Group |slice       |1  |skin            |               |
|Vegetables,     |            |1  |Bologna         |2 Tbsp (1 oz)  |
|cooked          |2 medium    |   |Dry beans and   |1/3 cup (1 oz) |
|Vegetables,     |˝ cup       |1  |peas, cooked    |               |
|leafy, raw      |            |1  |Peanut butter   |               |
|Vegetables,     |1cup        |1  |Nuts            |1 tsp          |
|nonleafy raw,   |˝ cup       |   |Fats, oils, and |1 Tbsp         |
|chopped         |            |1  |Sweets          |1 Tbsp         |
|Potatoes,       |˝ cup       |   |Butter,         |1 Tbsp         |
|scalloped       |˝ cup       |1  |margarine       |               |
|Potato salad    |10          |1  |Mayonnaise      |2 Tbsp         |
|French fries    |            |   |Salad dressing  |1 tsp          |
|Fruit Group     |1 medium    |1  |Reduced calorie |12 fl oz       |
|Whole fruit:    |            |   |salad dressing  |12 fl oz       |
|apple, orange.  |˝ cup       |   |Sour cream      |1 tsp          |
|Banana          |ľ cup       |1  |Sugar, jam,     |˝ cup          |
|Fruit, raw or   |            |1  |jelly           |1 tsp          |
|canned          |Ľ whole     |1  |Cola            |1 tsp          |
|Fruit juice,    |            |1  |Fruit drink, ade|               |
|unsweetened     |            |   |                |               |
|Avocado         |1 cup       |1  |Chocolate bar   |               |
|Milk, yogurt,   |1 cup       |   |Sherbet         |               |
|and cheese Group|1 cup       |1  |Fruit sorbet    |               |
|                |1 cup       |   |Gelatin dessert |               |
|Skim milk       |            |   |                |               |
|Lowfat milk 2 % |8 oz        |   |                |               |
|Whole milk      |            |   |                |               |
|Chocolate milk, |8oz         |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|2 %             |            |   |                |               |
|Lowfat yogurt,  |            |   |                |               |
|plain           |            |   |                |               |
|Lowfat yogurt,  |            |   |                |               |
|fruit           |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |Ľ              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1/3            |
|                |            |   |                |1/3            |
|                |            |   |                |˝              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1/3            |
|                |            |   |                |1/3            |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1/3            |
|                |            |   |                |1/3            |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |1              |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |
|                |            |   |                |               |


Plan a healthy Diet

   Using the food Guide Pyramid and “What Counts as a Serving?” plan a  full
day’s diet that contains the recommended number of servings  for  each  food
group. Be sure that the meals you create are ones you would actually eat.



                       Food Items       How     Number of        Total
number
                                        Much    servings    of serving

|Bread Group      |                 |      |           |            |
|Vegetable Group  |                 |      |           |            |
|Fruit Group      |                 |      |           |            |
|Milk Group       |                 |      |           |            |
|Meat Group       |                 |      |           |            |
|Fats, Oils, and  |                 |      |           |            |
|Sweets           |                 |      |           |            |

 Food Guide Pyramid.
   The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid is an  outline  for
making daily food choices for a healthful diet. Researchers  now  know  that
eating a healthful diet reduces  the  risk  of  heart  disease,  high  blood
pressure, stroke, certain cancers, and the most common type of diabetes.
   The pyramid shape is related to the recommended  daily  amounts  of  food
from each of five major groups and from a sixth grouping of  “extras”.  Most
people should eat more servings of foods from groups closer to the base  and
fewer servings of food from groups closer to the trip.
   For good health you need foods from the five major food groups  shown  in
the Food Guide Pyramid. At the base of  the  Pyramid  is  the  Bread  Group,
which includes bread, cereal, rice, and paste. On the  next  level  are  the
Vegetable Group – including yellow, root, and green leafy vegetables  –  and
the Fruit Group. On the third level are the  Milk  Group  –  which  includes
milk, yogurt, and  cheese  –  and  the  Meat  Group,  which  includes  meat,
poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts. The sixth grouping –  Fats,  Oils,
and Sweets – is shown  at the tip of the Pyramid; these extras  are  grouped
together because they each should be used sparingly.

   The knowledge of this theme “Food” makes these practical and theoretical
         valuable for those who wanted to grow thin or to grow fat.
   Also material of this report  is  incased  knowledge  and  enriched  this
theme. It is the help for English teachers and students  who  want  to  know
more than they have in their books.



                                Bibliography


 . The magazine “Forum” volume 36 number 4 Oct-Dec 1998
 . The book “Brush your English” E.D. Mihailova and A.Y. Romanovich, Moscow.
   2001
 . The book “ 1000 English topics” V. Kaverina and V. Boiko, Moscow, 2000
 . The book “ Happy English reader”
 . The book “American Studies” V.M. Pavlotskei, St. Peterburg, 1997
 . The book “The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova, 1999
 . The book “Kazakh in brief” G.H. Molkha, Astana
 . The book “English for students” I.A. Klapalchenko, Mpscow, 1997
 .



-----------------------
[1] From the magazine “Forum”.

[2] From the magazine “Forum”.

[3] From the magazine “Forum”.
[4] From the magazine “Forum”.



[5] From the magazine “Forum”.



[6] From the magazine “Forum”.

[7] From the magazine “English”.
[8] From the book “Brush up your English” E. D. Mihailova and A. Y.
Romanovich
[9] From the book “100 English topics” Kaverina V. And Boiko V.

[10] From the site “www. English for everyone.ru”

11 From the book “Happy English reader”

12 From the book “ American Studies” Pavlotskei V. M. , St. Petersburg,
1997
[11]  From the book “ The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova


[12] From the book “The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova


14 From the book “The USA history and the present” L. Khalilova.

15 From the book “Kazakhstan in brief” G. H. Molkha, Astana, 2002.
16 From the magazine “English”.

17 From the magazine “forum”.
18 From the book “English for students” I. A. Klepalchenko.

19 From the magazine “Forum”