Grammar


|              |PARTICIPLE I              |
|1.Attribute   |If we have a participle   |
|(Participle I |used as an attribute to a |
|Indefinite    |noun (in pre-position),   |
|Active &      |the noun performs the     |
|Passive).     |action expressed by the   |
|              |–ing form.(a touching     |
|              |story-a story that can    |
|              |touch, a laughing girl-a  |
|              |girl who is laughing).    |
|              |Participle I Perfect can  |
|              |be used only as an        |
|              |adverbial modifier & never|
|              |as an attribute. To       |
|              |express priority an       |
|              |attribute clause is used: |
|              |The student who has shown |
|              |the countries of America  |
|              |on the map is going to his|
|              |seat.                     |
|              |Sometimes the Participle I|
|              |Indefinite denotes an     |
|              |action referring to no    |
|              |particular time: Taiga is |
|              |a thick forest stretching |
|              |to the south of tundra.   |
|2.Predicative |To be astonishing, to be  |
|(Participle I |disappointing, to be      |
|Indefinite    |exciting, to be           |
|Active).      |humiliating               |
|              |(оскорбительно,           |
|              |унизительно), to be       |
|              |inviting (заманчивый), to |
|              |be tempting               |
|              |(привлекательный), to be  |
|              |terrifying (ужасный), to  |
|              |be touching.              |
|3.Parenthesis.|Generally speaking,       |
|(Participle I |judging by appearance     |
|Indefinite    |(words)(судя по внешнему  |
|Active)       |виду), mildly             |
|              |speaking(спокойно),       |
|              |speaking frankly, strictly|
|              |speaking, saying nothing  |
|              |of, roughly speaking.     |
|4.Adverbial   |                          |
|modifier of   |                          |
|clause(reason)|                          |
|(PI Indefinite|Not knowing the topic     |
|Active,       |well, he got confused.    |
|PI Indefinite |                          |
|Passive;      |Being impressed by the    |
|              |duel scene in ”Hamlet”,   |
|PI Perfect    |they were silent on the   |
|Active, PI    |way home.                 |
|Perfect       |Having lost the book, the |
|Passive).     |students couldn’t prepare |
|              |for the topic.            |
|              |Having been left alone,   |
|              |the child felt miserable &|
|              |lonely                    |
|5.Adverbial   |                          |
|modifier of   |                          |
|comparison.   |                          |
|PI Indefinite |She shivered with fright  |
|Act           |as if realizing the       |
|              |danger.                   |
|6.Adverbial   |                          |
|modifier of   |                          |
|attendant     |                          |
|circumstances(|                          |
|manner)       |                          |
|Participle Ind|I spent the morning on the|
|Act           |cliff reading.            |
|7. Adverbial  |                          |
|modifier of   |                          |
|time.         |The action expressed by a |
|PI Ind Act    |participle in the function|
|PI Ind Pas    |of an adv. mod always     |
|PI Perf Act   |refers the to the subject |
|PI Ind Pas    |of the whole sentence.    |
|              |With such verbs as to see,|
|              |to hear, to notice, to    |
|              |come, to arrive, to seize,|
|              |to look, to enter, to     |
|              |turn, to close, to open,  |
|              |to cross. PI Ind Act is   |
|              |used to express a prior   |
|              |action when the action    |
|              |expressed by the finite   |
|              |verb closely follows the  |
|              |action expressed by the P:|
|              |Seeing that it was useless|
|              |to argue with him, I      |
|              |dropped the subject.      |
|              |The conjunctions ”when” & |
|              |“while” are often used    |
|              |with PI Ind Act to express|
|              |an action in progress     |
|              |simultaneous with that of |
|              |the finite verb: While    |
|              |making a tour of England, |
|              |we were impressed by its  |
|              |beauty.                   |
|              |PI Ind of the verb “to be”|
|              |is not used as an         |
|              |adverbial modifier of     |
|              |time: “Когда я был в      |
|              |Москве»=”When in Moscow”  |
|              |                          |
|              |                          |


tThe functions of participle II in the sentence.
|Attribute    |PII of transitive verbs    |
|             |corresponds to the Russian |
|             |страдательное причастие or |
|             |действительное причастие of|
|             |some verbs ending in –ся a |
|             |broken chair (сломанный    |
|             |стул), a newspaper         |
|             |published in Moscow        |
|             |(газета, издаваемая в      |
|             |Москве). PII can be used in|
|             |post-position & in         |
|             |pre-position (without any  |
|             |accompanying words). He    |
|             |answered through the locked|
|             |door. (Он ответил через    |
|             |открытую дверь). They      |
|             |turned into the large      |
|             |conservatory beautifully   |
|             |lit up with Chinese lamps. |
|             |(Они свернули в небольшую  |
|             |оранжерею, красиво         |
|             |освещённую китайскими      |
|             |фонариками)                |
|             |PII of intransitive verbs, |
|             |which denote passing into a|
|             |new state, corresponds to  |
|             |the Russian действительное |
|             |причастие or to an         |
|             |adjective. Only in few     |
|             |cases PII of an            |
|             |intransitive verb may be   |
|             |used attributively, mostly |
|             |PII of the verbs to        |
|             |fade(увядать), to          |
|             |wither(искушать, губить),to|
|             |retire, to fall/ to        |
|             |vanish(исчезать). Faded    |
|             |leaves (увядшие листья).   |
|             |An attribute expressed by  |
|             |the PII may be detached    |
|             |(отделён); in this case it |
|             |often has an additional    |
|             |meaning of an adverbial    |
|             |modifier: The housekeeper  |
|             |had come out of her room,  |
|             |attracted by the violent   |
|             |ringing of the ball.       |
|             |(Экономка вышла из своей   |
|             |комнаты, привлечённая      |
|             |неистовым звоном           |
|             |колокольчика.)             |
|Adverbial    |PII preceded by the        |
|modifier.    |conjunctions when, while,  |
|Of time      |if, as thought, etc.       |
|             |When guestonied Annie had  |
|             |implied vaguely…that she   |
|             |was anxious about her      |
|             |brother-in-law. (Когда Энни|
|             |стали расспрашивать, она   |
|             |дала понять, что           |
|Condition    |беспокоится о своём        |
|             |шурине).                   |
|             |It was a dreadful thing    |
|             |that he now proposed, a    |
|Comparison   |breach of the law which, if|
|             |discovered, would bring    |
|Concession   |them into the police court.|
|(уступка)    |То, что он предлагал, было |
|             |ужасно: это было нарушение |
|             |закона, и, если бы оно     |
|             |открылось, их отдали бы под|
|             |суд.                       |
|             |As if torn with inner      |
|             |conflict & indecision, he  |
|             |cried.Он плакал, словно его|
|             |мучили внутренняя борьба и |
|             |сомнения.                  |
|             |Her spirit, though crushed,|
|             |wasn’t broken-хотя она и не|
|             |была подавлена, но не была |
|             |сломлена.                  |
|Predicative  |In spite of himself, he was|
|             |impressed. На него это     |
|             |произвело впечатление,     |
|             |помимо его воли.           |
|Part of a    |She has found me unaltered;|
|complex      |but I have found her       |
|object       |changed. Она нашла, что я  |
|             |ничуть не изменился, а я   |
|             |нашёл, что она изменилась. |



The Objective Participle Construction is a construction in which the
participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a
pronoun in the objective case.
It may be found:
1. After verbs denoting sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to
   find, etc): Then he looked out of the window & saw clouds gathering. I
   heard my wife coming. She could feel her hands trembling exceedingly. I
   saw the pony harnessed myself. You will probably find your sister grown.
2. After some verbs of mental activity: to consider, to understand: I
   consider myself engaged to Herr Klemser.
3. After verbs denoting wish, such as to want, to wish, to desire. In this
   case only Participle II is used. The governor wants it done quick.
4.  After the verbs to have & to get, only PII is used. In this case the
   Objective Participial Construction shows that the action expressed by the
   participle is performed at the request of the person denoted by the
   subject of the sentence: Thus I had the piano tuned means “I made someone
   tune the piano”.  He had several bottles of wine brought. Ему принесли
   несколько бутылок вина. In interrogative & negative sentences the
   auxiliary verb to do is used: Why don’t you have your hair waved? (Почему
   вы не сделаете завивку?).
   The subjective Participial Construction.
   The construction in which the participle (mostly the PI) is in predicate
   relation to a noun in the common case or to a pronoun in the nominative
   case, which is the subject of the sentence.
   In rendering this construction in Russian a complex sentence is generally
   used; the principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is
   called «неопределённо-личное предложение».
   The peculiarity of this construction is that it doesn’t serve as one part
   of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the
   subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate:
   They were hard talking together.
   This construction is chiefly used after the verbs of sense perception:
   The horse was seen descending the hill-Видно было, как лошадь спускалась
   с холма.




	

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