NIKOLAEV AND YAKUTIA ( )


                     Ministry of Education RS (Yakutia)
                The Yakut state university name M.K. Ammosova
                         Physicotechnical institute
                                Power faculty



                                   REFERAT



                     On a theme:    NIKOLAEV AND YAKUTIA



                                                                     Has
executed:



students of group -01


Vasilev M., Archaxov F., Mixailov A.
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checked up:

Zaxarova E.V.



                                Yakutsk 2002.
                                THE CONTENTS


1. History . 4
2. A few words about richness . 5
3. Sovereignity  6
4. Economic relations ... 8
5. Mikhail Nikolaev ... 10
6. The conclusion . 11

The used literature  14



 Yakutia is a well-known place in the world since ancient time. But Republic
     of Yakutia has received its own flag and stamp only recently, with
     receiving of true sovereignity. In opinion of majority of Republic
 citizens, both of state symbols most conciseness express historical destiny
 of Yakutia native people, their present day, their future and nature of the
                               north country.



         Present sovereign Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is  an  exporter  and
importer of goods production. But first of all a few words about history.



                                   HISTORY


         Beginning from the 17th century, with coming of Cossackslandwalders
to the Lena river, the  Lena  area,  as  they  called  Yakutia,  attracted
attention  of  Russian  tzars,  and  their  close  surrounding.  Of  course,
attention of Russian authorities to Yakutia  was  called  by  political  and
economical matters in difference of  attention  of  scientists,  travellers,
men of letters.
         Union of new lands, need in famous Yakutian fur, which was carrying
off abroad, to European and Asian countries, filling up the state  treasure,
were necessary.  Economic  potention  of  Yakutia  especially  in  the  20th
century, grew exceedingly, although it  continued  to  serve  as  pantry  of
natural richnesses only.



                         A FEW WORDS ABOUT RICHNESS

         Before this time richness  of  sakha  people  was  cattle  and  its
products, such as meat, milk and butter. Besides of  this,  it  was  nature:
sakha, evenks, evens, jukagirs and local Russians, they  were  rigorous  and
silent, and nourished to nature the most tender feeling, used its  gifts  in
necessary degree to live in these austere conditions. Furs  were  used  only
for practice. But in other hand, with sewing of clothes  esthetical  feeling
of the people was manifested, they decorated their  clothes  with  patterns,
beads, other fur.
         In the first half of the  17th  century  fairies  appeared  on  the
northeast, and beginning in June 25,1768 a decree of Senate  on  instituting
of official fairies in Irkutsk, Yakutsk,  Udinsk  was  adopted,  Astonishing
fact was the quantity of merchants of second and third  guilde,  in  Yakutsk
in 1823 they were 43, in Olyekminsk they were 10, in Vilyuisk  8.
         Thats why in the end of the 19th century Yakutian merchants traded
on huge area not only in the area of north-east, they had exited  to  Japan,
China, and other countries. In the 20th  century  famous  merchant  families
gathered  put  together,  such  as  Averenskie,  Astrafhantsevy,  Molotcovy,
Nikiforovy, and many others.


                                SOVEREIGNITY

         Today, when the Republic of Sakha stands enough firmly on the  base
of sovereignity, it has possibility to trade itself with  different  states.
The Republic is establishing international political and economic  relations
with its foreign partners, a number  of  intergovernmental  agreements  with
countries of CIS and foreign countries  were   signed.  Constant  and  Trade
Representations  of  the  Republic  of  Sakha  were   created   in   Latvia,
Kazakhstan, Ukraine, in several regions of Russian Federation.
         There is almost all  the Mendeleev table in Yakutia.  Not  in  vain
our ancestry made a proverb: Nobody can desolate to  bottom  the  chest  of
nature On the other hand  Mikhail  Nikolaev  is  right  saying:  we  must
extract, produce and sell such quantity of production,  that  Yakutian  will
live in security. In his work Yakutia  on  the  border  of  centuries  he
stresses, that it is necessary for the Republic to be directed on  European
countries, and especially to countries of Asian and Pacific ocean regions.
         First Yakutian jewelry  plant give its production. In 1992 it  gave
products for 10 million roubles per day,  now is  achieved  much  more  high
level. There are things of gold, diamond, silver. Add to  this  fur,  mamont
bone, foal meat, deer meat, wood, coal, gas and so  on.  Republic  of  Sakha
has something to  offer  to  foreign  customer,,  and  it  can  support  our
cultural connections, which have deep tradition, is coming of delegation  of
47 people from brother-town Muroyama (Japan), the delegation carried  out  a
number of important appointment, including  appointment  with  the  head  of
Yakutsk Alexey Tomtosov,  rector  of  the  university  Vasily  Philipov  and
others. Delegations from Austria, Great Britain, China, the  USA  and  other
countries desire visitors us.



                             ECONOMIC RELATIONS
         But distinct character of our present connections must be  mutually
beneficial economical relations. The Republic has worked out  22  state  and
complex programmes of development, including almost all spheres of life  and
activity of population, and branches of economy and culture.  Each  of  them
requires large investments and provides their realization with  taking  part
of  other foreign firms,  companies  and  countries.  Change  of  Republican
economy character (from extracting industry to processing one is planned  by
foreign firms.
         There are first signs of  such  cooperation.  Austrian  firms  have
built Medical center and non-alcohol  squashes  plant  in  Yakutsk.  Swatzer
MABETEXGRUPP, having built milk plant  has  built  House  of  Maternity  and
childhood protection.  Canadian  builders  have  Canadian  village  of  37
cottages with autonomous provision for talented children  of  the  Republic.
State company of Foreign Trade  SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG  was  established  in  the
Republic,  president  of  the  Company  is  Andrew  Popov.  Having   special
divisions, SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG imports  wood  processing  equipment,  machines
and tools for building,  technological  conveyers  on  processing  of  meat,
fish,  milk,  newest  medical  technique  and  medicines,  leading   medical
technology, transport. means, clothes and shoes for all  seasons,  food  and
other goods.
         Export division is standing on  its  feet,  too.  SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG
does operates on a number of main positions. They export to external  market
large sawing wood, timber, sawing materials, fur: squirrel,  ermine,  sable,
for: production  of  deer-breeding:  pants  (spring  horns),  broken  horns,
organs of northern deer, energetic coal and so  on.  Having  such  firms  as
SAKHABULT, SAKHALES, SAKHAAS, YAKUTALMAS, YAKUTUGOL and other, our  Republic
will consolidate economical,  trade  and  cultural  connections  with  other
countries.
         Many positive developments in the economy and culture of the region
are justifiably linked with the name of the first President of the  Republic
of Sakha (Yakutia), Mikhail Nikolaev. The stable situation in the  Republic,
the mutual understanding and co-operation with the  leadership  and  regions
of Russia, with the countries of the CIS and the far abroad  owe much  to
him. In December 1993 he was elected deputy to the Federal Assembly  of  the
Russian Federation. The President of Russia,  Boris  Yeltsin,  rated  highly
Mikhail Nikolaev as President of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).



                              MIKHAIL NIKOLAEV

         On 20 December 1991 Mikhail Nikolaev was elected the  president  of
the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In his  remarks  to  the  citizens  of  the
Republic on the third anniversary of the declaration of sovereignty  of  the
Republic he stressed that the constructive  policies  of  the  Republic  of
Sakha for solving its internal problems and also for its relations with  the
Russian  Federation  are  attracting  the  attention  of  the   Federations
subjects and raise the authority of the Republic inside as well  as  outside
of it borders
         During two years since the December 1991 elections  Yakutians  have
been able to satisfy themselves that the political  goals  of  the  Republic
are achieving at ensuring the well-being of the people  and  welfare  safety
net for the population at a difficult stage in  the  development  of  market
economy. These policies have as their fundamental goal the rebirth   of  the
multinational people of the republic and the strengthening of the  centuries
old traditional ties with Russia.
         Elected by all the people, the first President of the  Republic  of
Sakha, Mikhail Nikolaev, has become the acknowledged leader of  the  peoples
of Yakutia through his practical  efforts  for  the  good  of  the  northern
peoples. Many things have been achieved. Chief among them  the shaping  and
strengthening of the Republic of Sakha as a sovereign state  within  Russia,
the signing the Federal Agreement, signing of the agreement on economic  co-
operation with the Russian Federation, as a result  of  which  the  Republic
received the right to dispose of 20 per cent of gem-grade diamonds, 100  per
cent of industrial diamonds, 12 per cent of gold  and  other  resources.  An
agreement  has  been  signed  clarifying  the  status  of  state   property,
belonging both to the Republic of Sakha and to the Russian  Federation,  and
providing for the creation of budget tax levies. The Republic of  Sakha  has
adopted the Constitution. With the active  support  of  the  president,  the
foundations were being set for the development of production  capacity,  950
enterprises have been put on a new management basis, more than  2.700  farms
have been established, diamond cutting  was  being  developed,  as  well  as
other processing industries.



                               THE CONCLUSION

         Today, the Republic of Sakha has its own constitution and  its  own
president.  Sakha  has  embarked  on  the  path  of  sovereign,  equal   and
independent development. It follows that, from now, it  will  find  its  own
solutions to social, economic  and  cultural  problems.  It  offers  to  co-
operate with other peoples  on  the  basis  of  equal  relations  in  trade,
science, politics and culture. Its  freedom,  newly  won,  will  enable  the
potential of the Sakha people as a whole, and of each individual, to  flower
fully. Like the culture of other nation, the culture  of  Sakha  brings  its
own special contribution to world culture. The granite  monument  in  Moscow
to Aleksey Kulakovsky, founder of Yakut literature, is testimony to this.



         There are many differences between our nations. But there are  many
common things, too. Every morning sun rise in the East, its rays  illuminate
snow ridges of Yakutia, reflecting in waves  of  its  full-watered  reverse,
and roaming in unlimited taiga, these rays carry their  light  and  warmness
to the West. We are one of the nations in the planet, who meet sun first  of
all people. We  meet  sun  with  hope  of  peace,  harmony  and  kind  human
relations.



                            The used literature:

         1. State Company of External Trade SAKHAVNESHOPTTRG   Instituted by
Decree of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) President from 21.07.92.

         2. Yakutia - Russia: 370 years together. NKI Bichik  Republic  of
Sakha (Yakutia), 2002.