Subjunctive (or conditional) mood


          Now we come to a very difficult set of problems, namely those
    connected with the subjunctive (or conditional) mood.

          The chief difficulty analysis has to face here is the absence of a
    mutual relation between meaning and form. Sometimes the same external
    series of signs will have two or more different meanings depending on
    factors lying outside the form itself, and outside the meaning of the
    verb; sometimes the same modal meaning will be expressed by two
    different series of external signs.

          Let’s take, for example, the sequence we should come, which means
    one thing in the sentence:
          I think we should come here again to-morrow (here we should come
    is equivalent to we ought to come); it means another thing in the
    sentence:
          If we knew that he wants us we should come to see him (here we
    should come denotes a conditional, i.e. an action depending on certain
    conditions), and it means another thing again in the sentence:
    How queer that we should come at the very moment when you were talking
    about us! (here we should come denotes an action which has actually
    taken place and which is considered as an object for comment).

          The second point may be illustrated by comparing of two sentences,
    I suggest that he go and he I suggest that should go, and we will for
    the present neglect the fact that the first of the two variants is more
    typical of American, and the second of British English.
    Matters are still further complicated by two phenomena where we are
    faced with a choice between polysemy and homonymy. One of these
    concerns forms like lived, knew , etc. Such forms appear in two types
    of contexts, of which one may be exemplified by the sentences, He lived
    here five years ago, or I knew it all alone,  and the other by the
    sentences, If he lived here he would come at once, or, If I knew his
    address I should write to him.
          In sentences of the first type the form obviously is the past
    tense of the indicative mood. The second type admits of two
    interpretations: either the forms lived, knew, etc are the same forms
    of past indicative that were used in the first type, but they have
    acquired another meaning in this particular context, or else the forms
    lived, knew, etc. are forms of some other mood, which only happen to be
    homonymous with forms of the past indicative but are basically
    different.
          Subjunctive mood may express suppositional or desirable action.
             1. The verb to be has in present tense the form be for all
                singular and plural persons. The verb to be in the past
                tense has the form were for singular and plural persons (I
                be, I were respectively).
        2. Forms be or were are used for formation of Present and Past
           Subjunctive mood in Passive voice (I be sent, I were sent
           respectively).
             3. All other verbs in subjunctive mood differ from indicative
                mood by the form of the third person of the Present time
                without ending –s.
                     Using of forms of Subjunctive mood.
         I. The forms of Present Subjunctive of the verb to be and of other
            verbs are used :
             a) In subordinate clauses of subject, beginning with
                conjunction that after impersonal turns such as: it is
                necessary (необходимо), it is important (важно), it is
                desirable (желательно) and so on:
               Ex. It is desirable that he be there at 5 o’clock.
               (Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.)
             b) In subordinate clauses of object, expressing order, offer,
                resoluteness, accord – to order, to command приказать, to
                suggest, to propose предлагать, to decide решать, to agree
                соглашаться, договариваться.
                The workers demanded that the law be put into effect.
            c) In subordinate clauses of purpose after conjunction lest:
               Ex. They covered the goods with canvas lest they be damaged
               by rain. (Они покрыли товар брезентом, чтобы они не были
               повреждены дождем).

             Present Subjunctive is used mainly in the USA, in England this
          form is remained only in official language (acts of the law,
          document); in a modern literary language and in a spoken language
          Present Subjunctive is replaced by construction should with
          infinitive.


        The form of Past Subjunctive of the verb to be- were is used:
           a) In a subordinate part of conditional sentences of the second
              type:
        Ex. If he were here, he would help us.  ( Если бы он был здесь, он
        помог бы нам.)
            If I were you, I would accept their offer. (Если бы я был на
            вашем месте, я бы принял их предложение.)
           b) In subordinate sentences of course of action (образа
              действия), beginning with conjunctive as if:
        Ex. He spoke as if he were a specialist on the subject. ( Он
        говорил, как если бы он был специалистом по этому вопросу.)
           c) In subordinate sentences of object with the verb  to wish:
        Ex. I wish he were with! (Как я хотела, чтобы он был с нами.)

        From all forms of Subjunctive mood the form were is the most
        spread, but it is often replaced by the form was in the first and
        the third persons of a singular form. It is especially typical for
        colloquial speech.
         Ex. If he was here, he would help us.

        Thus, those few forms of the Subjunctive mood that are preserved in
        the modern language are gradually ousted from it.
        The desirable and suppositional actions are expressed also by the
        following combinations: should, would, may, might plus infinitive,
        which perform the functions of the Subjunctive mood.
        Ex. There are some suggestions that might help in our work.
        (Имеются некоторые предположения, которые могли бы помочь в нашей
        работе).

                           Conditional sentences.

              Conditional sentences are closely connected with subjunctive
        (conditional) mood. There are three types of conditional sentences.
              Conditional sentences of the first type express entirely real
        and realizable suppositions and correspond in Russian language to
        conditional sentences with verbs in indicative mood. These
        conditional sentences mostly express suppositions referring to the
        future tens.
              Ex. If the weather is fine to-morrow, we shall go to the
        country. (Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.)
        There is no necessity to further consider this type of conditional
        sentences as they do not conform to the theme.
              The conditional sentences of the second type express
        incredible and improbable suppositions. They refer to the present
        or future and in Russian language agree with conditional sentences
        with verbs in Subjunctive mood (i.e. in the form of past tens with
        the particle бы in Russian language). In the conditional sentences
        of the second type in subordinate clause (in condition) there used
        the form of Past Indefinite and in main clause (in consequence) – a
        combination of should or would with Indefinite Infinitive:
              Ex. If Helen knew** about Alice’s arrival (now), she would
        call her up. (Если бы Елена знала о прибытии Алисы, она бы ей
        позвонила).
              (Given sentence is incredible as Helen does not know about
        Alice’s arrival that is why she can not call her up.)
              Ex. If my brother had** a time now, he would help them. ( Если
        бы у моего брата было время, он бы помог нам.)
              (This sentence is also impossible as the brother has not time
        now that is why he can not help us.)
                 ** We have here Subjunctive mood which however coincides
         with the form of Past Indefinite of Indicative mood.
              The combinations such as:
        1. Should (with all persons) with Infinitive without particle to;
             2.  Were (with all persons) with Infinitive with particle to.
        are used along with Past Indefinite in order to underline a small
        possibility of realization of a fact in future.
              Ex. If I should see him to-morrow,
                    I should ask him about it.
                    If I were to see him to-morrow,
                    I should ask him about it.
               (Если бы я увидел его завтра, я спросил бы его об этом.)
              In subordinate clauses there used sometimes combinations of
        would with Infinitive. In this case the verb would is not an
        auxiliary verb but serves to show a request.
              Ex. We should be obliged if you would acknowledge receipt of
        this letter. (Мы были бы обязаны, если бы Вы подтвердили (были
        любезны подтвердить) получение этого письма).
              The following examples of sentences may also be regarded as
        sentences of unreal conditions for the present and future:
              1. I wish I knew it. (Как жаль, что я этого не знаю).
              2. I fear lest he should be late. (Я боюсь, как бы он не
                 опоздал).
              3. He spoke as if he were a doctor. (Он говорил так, как-будто
                 он доктор).
              4. I suggest that he should go there too. (Я предлагаю, чтобы
                 он тоже туда пошел).
              5. Knew Helen his address she would visit him. (Знай Елена его
                 адрес, она бы навестила его).
              6. It is necessary that he should come. (Необходимо, чтобы он
                 пришел).
              Conditional sentences of the third type express suppositions
        referring to the past and that is why they are unrealizable. Like
        the Conditional sentences of the second type they correspond in
        Russian language to the Conditional sentences with a verb in
        Subjunctive mood (i.e. with a verb in the form of past tens with a
        particle бы in Russian language).
              In the Conditional sentences of the third type in the
        subordinate clause (in the condition) there used the form of Past
        Perfect and in the main clause (in the consequence) there used a
        combination would with Perfect Infinitive (without to).
              Ex. If your instructions had been received** ten days ago, the
        goods would have been shipped by the S.S “Svir” yesterday. (Если бы
        ваши указания были получены десять дней назад, товар был бы
        отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь»).
              ** We have here the form of Subjunctive mood which coincides
        with the form of Past Perfect of Indicative mood.

              The unreal condition of the past moment can be expressed also
        by other ways:
              1. Without using of conjunction If:
              Ex. Had I seen him yesterday I should have informed him.
        (Увидь я его вчера, я бы сообщил ему об этом.)
              2. By using of the model verb might:
                      Ex. He might have done it if he tried.
              (Он смог бы это сделать, если бы попытался).
             4. By using of the verb wish:
                      Ex. I wish(ed) I had known him then.
            (Как жаль, что я его не знала тогда).

              It is worth while giving example of the case of using the
           Conditional sentences of the mixed type:
              Ex. If you had worked harder then you would know English
        better. (Если бы ты занимался усерднее (раньше, когда-то), (сейчас)
        ты бы знал английский лучше).

              Finally, it is appropriate mention here those scholars who
        devoted themselves to studying the problems of moods:
              M. Deutschbein (he proposed 16 moods);
              Prof. Smirnitsky (he proposed the system of 6 moods:
        indicative, imperative, subjunctive1, subjunctive2, suppositional
        and conditional);
              Prof. G. Vorontsova;
              M. Gantina and N. Vasilevskaya and others.