Башня Лондона (Tower of London)




              Выполнил: студент  5-го курса Института филологии

                        германо –романского отделения
                                 группы 505
                                Мирзоев Т. А.

     1- Introduction –                             1

     2- The Bell Tower -                                2

     3- The bloody Tower -                         2

     4- The Salt Tower –                                3

     5- The Beauchamp Tower –                      3

     6- The Wakefield Tower –                           4

     7- The Martin Tower –                         4

     8- The White Tower –                          5
        a) Chaple of St. John The Evangelist –          5
        b) The Arms and Armors (part one) –        5
        c) The Arms and Armors (part two) –             6


      9     The Crown Jewels –                           7



      10    Ceremonies –                                 8

         a) The Ceremony of Keys –                  8
         b) The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses -  9


      Ghost stories -                               10

         a) The Ghost of Anne Boleyn -                   10
         b) Traitors’ Gate -                                   11


      The Tower of London is a visual  symbol  of  the  Norman  Conquest  of
England. It was built by William the Conqueror with stone that  was  brought
over from Caen. The English do not relish the memory and like to think  that
the Tower went back to Romans and was founded by Julius Ceaser. This is  not
true, but some parts of the complex rest on Roman  foundations.  William  I,
though, brought  over  a  Norman  expert  as  his  artificer,  Gundulf,  who
designed the Tower. The Tower of London  is  considered  now  by  the  Royal
Commission on  Historical  Monuments  as  "The  most  valuable  monument  of
Medieval military architecture surviving in England."
      The Tower was not only  a  fortress  but  eventually  became  a  royal
palace, state prison, the Mint, a record office, observatory, and zoo. As  a
state prison it was used for criminals  considered  most  dangerous  to  the
state, and the Mint was the treasury for the Crown Jewels. It became a  zoo,
the original Zoo, in 1834 when pets that the king had accumulated  over  the
years were among a great diversity. The zoo consisted  of  lions,  leopards,
bears wolves, lynxes, etc.
      The general appearance of this complex was much as it is today. Inside
the complex, though, there have been many changes. In  front  of  the  White
Tower, on the south side, there was a royal  palace  with  private  lodgings
and great hall. Medieval kings often  took  refuge  in  the  lodgings.  Many
historic events took place here too, such as  the  murder  of  the  princes,
Edward IV's sons. It was custom for kings and queens to spend the night,  or
a few days, before their coronation in these royal apartments.  These  royal
lodgings were eventually swept away, leaving the Tower all alone.
      After William the Conqueror the king that left a lasting impression on
the Tower was Henry III. By 1236 he had rebuilt the  Great  Hall  and  built
the Wakefield Tower next to the royal lodgings. He also  built  the  archway
to the Bloody Tower and the main angle towers along the wall.
      A direct  waterway  entrance  from  the  Thames  onto  the  Tower  was
difficult and for a time unachievable.  It  wasn't  until  the  oratory  was
built to the martyr St. Thomas that the foundations were  ensured  for  such
an entrance. The Water Gate, or entrance from the  Thames  into  the  Tower,
later became known as Traiter's Gate. Henry III's son,  Edward  I,  finished
off the Tower.
      Several episodes reveal the general history of these  times.  In  1244
Griffith, son of Llewelyn, the last independent Prince of  Wales,  attempted
an escape from the Tower by making a  rope  out  of  his  bedclothes,  which
resulted in his death after it broke. During the expulsion of  the  Jews  in
1278, hundreds were kept in the Tower. In 1357-8  the  Tower  served  as  an
arsenal. Edward III made many preparations for the French  war  here,  which
began with a naval victory of Sluys and ended up as the Hundred Years' War.

Beginning life as a simple timber and earth enclosure tucked in  the  south-
east angle formed by the joining of the original east and south stone  walls
of the old Roman town of  Londinium  Augusta,  the  original  structure  was
completed by the addition of a ditch and palisade along the north  and  west
sides.
This enclosure then received a huge structure of stone which  in  time  came
to be called The Great Tower and eventually as it is known today
      Since the first foundations were laid more  than  900  years  ago  the
castle has been constantly improved and extended by the  addition  of  other
smaller towers, extra buildings,  walls  and  walkways,  gradually  evolving
into the splendid example of castle, fortress, prison,  palace  and  finally
museum that it proudly represents today.
      Tower of London is a complex made up of many different  sections.  The
Tower is surrounded by a moat on three sides and the  Thames  River  on  the
fourth. The outside fortifications consist of Legge's and Brass  Mount.  The
inner fortifications, called the Ballium Wall, have 13  towers:  the  Bloody
Tower, the Wakefield Tower, the Bell Tower, the  Lanthorn  Tower,  the  Salt
Tower, the Broad Arrow Tower, the Constable Tower,  the  Martin  Tower,  the
Brick Tower, the Bowyer Tower, the Flint Tower, the Devereux Tower, and  the
Beauchamp Tower


                               The Bell Tower


The Bell Tower stands in the south-west corner of the  Inner  Ward.  It  was
built in the 13th century and is so called because of the belfry on top.  In
the past, when  the  bell  was  rung  in  alarm,  drawbridges  were  raised,
portcullises were dropped, and gates shut. The bell is  still  rung  in  the
evening to warn visitors on the wharf it is time to leave.
      Among the most famous prisoners confined to the  Bell  Tower  was  Sir
Thomas More imprisoned there in 1534. More, at one time close  friends  with
Henry VIII, refused to acknowledge the validity of the king's  divorce  from
Queen  Catherine  of  Aragon   (thereby  refusing  to  accept  the  Act   of
Succession)  and  to  acknowledge  him  as  supreme  head  of  the   Church.
Catherine, it should be noted, was the daugther of  Isabella  and  Ferdinand
of Spain, known for financing the expeditions of Christopher Columbus.  More
was executed July 1535 and buried in St Peters Chapel.
      Henry VIII's penchant for imprisoning  family  was  not  lost  on  his
children apparently. This involved two of his daughters  (by  two  different
mothers), both of  whom  would  one  day  rule.  Princess  Elizabeth,  later
Elizabeth I, was also imprisoned in the Bell Tower -- sent there in 1554  by
her half-sister Mary I on suspicion of being concerned in plots against  the
throne.


                              The Bloody Tower


      Originally this was known as the  Garden  Tower  for  the  constable's
garden that was by it. The square-shaped structure at one time served  as  a
gateway to the Inner Ward. Its lowest level was built by Henry III  and  the
other storeys were added later. It gained  its  present  name  in  the  16th
century because of the murderous deeds, which took place in its dark rooms.
      The most notorious deed was the killing of the princes, Edward  V  and
his younger brother Richard, Duke of York. This occurred in 1483  supposedly
on the orders of the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III,  but  there
are some who strongly oppose this view and name  Henry  Tudor,  later  Henry
VII as the culprit.
      The generally  accepted  version  of  the  murder  is  that  Elizabeth
Woodville, widow of Edward IV, was forced to allow her sons to live  in  the
Tower, ostensibly  to  enable  the  13-year-old  king  to  prepare  for  his
coronation. Sir Robert Brackenbury was asked to take part in the murder  but
refused to help. Thereupon Sir James Tyrrell was  sent  to  the  Tower  with
orders to force the Constable to surrender  his  keys  for  one  night.  Sir
James agents found the two boys asleep. One was  suffocated  with  a  pillow
while the other boy was stabbed to death. The murderers carried  the  bodies
down the narrow stairway and buried them under a covering of rubble  in  the
basement. They were later reburied by Sir Robert Brackenbury  close  to  the
White Tower, but all knowledge of the graves was lost. In 1674 skeletons  of
two boys were unearthed near the White Tower, and in  the  belief  that  the
grave of the princes had been found the king ordered the bodies to be  moved
to Westminster Abbey.
      Many other figures in history suffered imprisonment or  death  in  the
Bloody Tower. Archbishop Cranmer and Bishops Ridley  and  Latimer  who  were
condemned to death for heresy in 1555, were imprisoned in the  Tower  before
being burned at the stake at Oxford. Henry Percy died  there  in  mysterious
circumstances in 1585. The infamous Judge  Jeffreys  was  prisoner  here  as
well. Sir Thomas  Overbury,  poet  and  courtier,  was  a  victim  of  court
intrigue. His food is supposed to have been poisoned, and he is supposed  to
have swallowed enough poison to have killed 20 men before he died in 1613.
Sir Walter Raleigh spent most of his 13 years of imprisonment in the  Bloody
Tower, but he was  able  to  perform  many  scientific  experiments.  He  is
credited with having discovered a method  of  distilling  fresh  water  from
salt water. Also during his imprisonment he wrote his vast  History  of  the
World which was published in 1614, four years  before  he  was  beheaded  at
Westminster.


                               The Salt Tower


This tower, yet another built by Henry III, about 1235  was  used  in  later
days  as  a  prison  for  Jesuits.  It  contains  a  number  of  interesting
inscriptions, the most notable being a complicated diagram cut in stone  for
casting horoscopes. The inscription records  that  "Hew  Draper  of  Brystow
made this sphere the 30 daye of Maye anno 1561". Draper was  imprisoned  for
attempted witchcraft in 1561.
In several places on the walls a pierced heart, hand,  and  foot  have  been
carved. This symbol signifies the wounds  of  Christ.  As  in  other  towers
where the Jesuits were imprisoned. The monogram I.H.S, with  a  cross  above
the H, occurs in several places -- the sign made by the Society of Jesus.


                             The Beauchamp Tower


      Henry III and his son, Edward I, are to be attributed to the  creation
of the Beauchamp Tower. Henry III is responsible for many of the towers  and
structures in the Tower of London, with eight wall towers built  during  the
latter part of his reign. It  was  during  Edward's  reconstruction  of  the
western section that he replaced a twin-towered  gatehouse  built  by  Henry
with the Beauchamp Tower around 1275-81.
Architecturally, the large amount of brick used, as opposed to  solely  that
of stone, was innovative at its time  for  castle  construction.  The  tower
takes its name from Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of  Warwick,  imprisoned  1397-99
by Richard II. The three-storey structure was used often  for  prisoners  of
high rank.
      Of special interest are the inscriptions carved  on  the  stone  walls
here by prisoners. The most elaborate is a memorial  to  the  five  brothers
Dudley, one of whom was Lord Guildford Dudley, husband of  Lady  Jane  Grey.
This unhappy pair were executed in 1554.

                             The Wakefield Tower

      Opposite Traitors Gate is the Wakefield Tower built in the early  13th
century. Here the Crown Jewels were housed from 1870 until 1967.  The  tower
has 2 chambers, the ground floor acting as a guardroom to the postern  which
led to the royal  apartments  above.  These  apartments  were  destroyed  by
Cromwell. The upper floor now contains a  large  and  magnificent  octagonal
vaulted chamber in which there is an oratory.
      Wakefield Tower was probably named after William de  Wakefield,  Kings
Clerk and holder of the custody of  the  Exchanges  in  1334.  In  the  14th
century the State records were transferred to the Wakefield Tower  from  the
White Tower, and in surveys of the period the building  is  referred  to  as
the Records Tower.
      Henry VI died in the Wakefield Tower on May 21st 1471. Henry  VI,  who
was also founder of Eton  College,  and  of  Kings  College,  Cambridge,  is
supposed to have been murdered on the orders  of  the  Duke  of  Gloucester,
later Richard III.


                              The Martin Tower


      Built by Henry III this tower is famous as the scene of Colonel Thomas
Bloods fruitless attempt to steal the Crown Jewels. After  the  Restoration,
the newly-made regalia was kept in the Martin Tower (known at  the  time  as
the Jewel Tower) in sole custody of the Deputy Keeper of the Jewels,  a  man
named Talbot Edwards who lived with his family in the tower.
      Blood, disguised as a clergyman, became very  friendly  with  Edwards,
even to the point of proposing a marriage between  the  old  mans'  daughter
and a supposed nephew of his. Early on a May morning in  1671,  the  colonel
appeared by appointment with his  "nephew"  and  a  friend  to  arrange  the
marriage. While awaiting the ladies, Blood suggested that his friends  might
see the Crown Jewels.  As  soon  as  the  chamber  was  opened  Edwards  was
attacked and badly injured. Blood hid the State  Crown  beneath  his  cloak;
one accomplice slipped the Orb into his  breeches,  while  the  other  began
filing the sceptre in  half  to  make  it  more  portable.  They  were  then
unexpectedly disturbed by Edward's son returning from abroad and  a  running
fight followed during which all three were captured.
      Blood eventually obtained an audience  with  Charles  II  to  whom  he
remarked that "it was a gallant attempt." Charles --  with  uncharacteristic
leniency -- immediately pardoned Blood, granted him a pension  and  promised
that his Irish estates, seized at the Restoration, would be restored.
Edwards, on the other hand, was granted 200 pounds by the Exchequer and  his
son was given 100 pounds. The old man, however, was forced to sell  off  his
expectation  for  half  its  value,  and  he  died  of  his  injuries   soon
afterwards.


                               The White Tower


      The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished
by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I. It is  90  feet  high
and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness  at
the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above  the  battlements  rise
four turrets; three of them  are  square,  but  that  on  the  Northeast  is
circular. This turret once contained the first royal observatory.
      The original single entrance was on the south side and it was  reached
by an external staircase. There were no doors at ground level. The walls  on
the upper floors were penetrated by narrow slits positioned in wide  splays.
On the southern side, four pairs of original double slits  remain.  In  late
17th and early 18th centuries all others were replaced  by  Sir  Christopher
Wren with the windows seen today.
      In the White Tower the medieval kings  of  England  lived  with  their
families and their court. Here was the seat of government and here the  laws
of the land were made. The  royal  family  lived  in  the  top  storey;  the
council chamber was on the floor below. In this chamber in 1399  Richard  II
was forced to sign away his  throne,  and  in  1483  Richard  III  summarily
sentenced Lord Hastings to death.


                      Chapel of St. John the Evangelist


      On the first floor of the White Tower is the exquisite  Chapel  of  St
John the Evangelist where the royal family  and  the  court  worshipped  and
where the knights of the Order of the  Bath  spent  their  vigil  the  night
before a coronation. It is one of  the  most  perfect  specimens  of  Norman
architecture in Great Britain. Roman influence can  also  be  found  in  the
White Tower's basement where there is  two-millennium-old  well.  The  White
Tower also contains one of the finest collections of arms and armour in  the
world.

                       The Arms and Armour (Part One)

      The White Tower and the New Armouries contain the national  collection
of arms and armour. As the most  important  fortress  in  the  kingdom,  the
Tower must have held armour and arms from the time it was first  built,  but
in their present form the Armouries date from the time of  Henry  VIII.  The
collection  --  one  of  the  greatest  in  the  world  --  illustrates  the
development of arms and armour from the Middle Ages to 1914.
      The White Tower is entered through the Tournament  Room.  The  display
here is devoted entirely to armour specially designed  for  use  in  warlike
exercise. This collection includes the tilt armour for the  German  form  of
joust known as the Scharfrennen, in which sharp lances were  used,  and  the
splendid Brocas helm. The armour was made about 1490 in Germany for  use  at
the court of Emperor Maximillian I; the  tilt  helm  was  probably  made  in
England in the same period.
      In tournaments mounted men ran different courses against  each  other,
each course requiring armour of a special design. Men  also  fought  against
one another on foot and this required armour of  yet  another  pattern.  The
Armouries contain three foot-combat armours made for Henry VIII,  the  first
dates to about 1512 and the second about 1515, when he was slim and  active.
The third one was made in 1540 when he was forty-nine and very  portly.  The
middle armour is remarkable in  that  all  the  plates  fit  together,  over
flanges, thus enabling his height of  six-feet  one-inch  to  be  accurately
determined.
      In the adjacent room the  collection  of  hunting  and  sporting  arms
includes crossbows and firearms. Here can be traced the  technical  advances
in firearm mechanisms, from the match lock,  the  snaphance  and  the  wheel
lock to the flintlock. The development  of  decorative  techniques  is  also
evident. Craftsmen applied or inlaid precious metals, ivory, bone  and  even
mother-of-pearl to enhance the wood they  carved  and  chiselled  with  such
consummate skill; the contemporary artistic styles  from  the  15th  to  the
19th centuries can thus be compared.
      An especially interesting  exhibit  is  the  elegant  silver-decorated
sporting gun made in Dundee in 1614. It came from the personal  gun-room  of
Louis XIII of France. Another  unique  exhibit  is  the  Scottish  gun  made
entirely of engraved brass for Charles I when he was a  young  man.  Through
the Chapel of St John is the Mediaeval Room, which is  now  devoted  to  the
earliest arms and armour in the Tower. The exhibits are mostly of  the  late
14th and 15th centuries and include a superb Italian visored  bascinet  with
its original neck protection of mail. There is also one of  the  few  Gothic
horse armours surviving. It was probably made to order for  Waldemar  VI  of
Anhalt-Zerbst (1450-1508).

                       The Arms and Armour (Part Two)

      In the adjoining Sixteenth-century Room, fine  arms  and  armour  date
from that century, but exclude English products.  Most  conspicuous  is  the
massive suit of German armour made around 1540 for a man nearly  seven  feet
tall. From the middle of the century is the splendid  Lion  Armour  embossed
with lions masks and damascened in gold.
      On the top floor, the Tudor Room is devoted mainly to the armours made
in the royal workshops at  Greenwich  which  Henry  VIII  established  about
1514. They include four armours made for the king himself  --  one  engraved
and silver plated -- and others  made  at  Greenwich  for  Tudor  courtiers.
There is an armour made for one of Elizabeth I's favourites, Robert  Dudley,
Earl of Leicester, another for William Somerset, Earl of Worcester,  another
for Sir John Smythe, who vainly championed the use  of  the  long  bow  many
years after its inevitable super-session by firearms.
      In the adjoining Stuart Room are  beautiful  little  armours  made  in
France and England for the Stuart kings  and  princes  and  the  London-made
harquebus armour of James II. They are the focus of  a  display  devoted  to
the 17th century -- the  last  period  before  armour  ceased  to  be  used.
Separate displays are devoted to the armour, arms and accoutrements  of  the
richly equipped bodyguards, the light and heavy cavalry, and  the  infantry.
The armour of the pikemen was the last to be worn by  foot  soldiers  before
the increased efficiency of firearms made its use impractical.
      In the basement is the Mortar Room, where the bronze mortars  on  view
include one of the bores used for fireworks at the peace of  Aix-la-Chapelle
in 1748. At the far end of the room is the entrance to the sun-crypt of  the
Chapel of St John, where a carved and gilt figure of the Lion of St Mark,  a
trophy from Corfu, is flanked by a number of the finest  small  cannon  from
the armouries collection.
      In the adjacent Cannon Room the walls are hung with  relics  of  Henry
VIII's army and a great array of armour and weapons returned  to  the  Tower
after the Civil War.  Here  also  is  the  greater  part  of  the  Armouries
collection of cannon, including several  from  the  ships  of  Henry  VIII's
navy.
      The New Armouries comprise a red brick building  close  to  the  White
Tower. On the ground floor is a  representative  collection  of  armour  and
arms of Africa and the Orient. It is dominated by armour  for  an  elephant,
probably captured at the battle of Plassey in 1757. One Japanese  armour  on
view was presented to James I by the governor of Edo in 1613.  Many  of  the
later sporting firearms on the first floor are of the highest  quality.  The
flintlock guns include ones  given  by  Louis  XIV  to  the  first  Duke  of
Richmond, another was sent by Napoleon to Charles IV of Spain, and  a  third
with matching powder flask, pair of pistols and stirrups, was  made  to  the
order of Elizabeth, Empress of Russia. Here also are the Reverend  Alexander
Forsyth's own models of the percussion  lock  he  invented  after  years  of
experiment  in  the  Tower.  Superseding  the   flintlock,   it   completely
revolutionised firearms development and, consequently, the science of war.


                              The Crown Jewels


      During medieval times Crown Jewels were the personal property  of  the
sovereign. It was fairly common practice for the King or Queen to pawn  them
or use them as security for loans in time of war.  Most  were  kept  at  the
Tower, particularly when the sovereign was in residence there, although  the
Coronation Regalia was held at Westminster Abbey.  Sometime  after  1660,  a
new set of Regalia was made to replace what had been  destroyed  during  the
Commonwealth. It was at that time that the Tower became the  permanent  home
of the Crown Jewels and put on public display.
      The Crown Jewels are what most visitors to the Tower of London come to
see. This incomparable collection of  crowns,  orbs,  swords,  sceptres  and
other regalia, and gold and silver  plate  was  refashioned  in  1661  after
parliament had ordered the original gold and precious metals  to  be  melted
down for coinage in 1649.
      The Imperial State Crown worn by monarchs at their coronations is  set
with jewels of great antiquity and historical significance.  The  oldest  is
Edward the Confessor's sapphire, believed to have been  worn  by  him  in  a
ring. The great gem above the rim is the ancient balas-ruby,  known  as  the
Black Prince's ruby, which is said to have been given to him  by  Pedro  the
Cruel of Castile.
      From the intersections of the arches hang four superb drop pearls, the
so-called Queen Elizabeth's Earrings, but there  is  no  evidence  that  she
ever wore them in this way. Set in the rim at the back of the crown  is  the
Stuart sapphire. It is probably much older than its  name  implies,  but  is
known to have been in the possession of James II  when  he  fled  to  France
after his deposition. It was formerly mounted in the rim, at the front,  but
was displaced by the Second Star of Africa cut from  the  Cullinan  diamond.
In addition to these jewels, the Imperial State Crown  contains  over  3,000
diamonds and pearls, as well as fine sapphires, emeralds, and rubies.
The Crown Jewels have in the past resided in both the  White  Tower  and  in
the Martin Tower. Today they have their home in Jewel House which is a  part
of the Waterloo Barracks (left side of photo). [Greeley/Gilmore]
 The Royal Sceptre with the  Cross  is  a  rod  of  chased  gold,  with  the
peerless Star of Africa cut from the  Cullinnan  diamond  held  in  a  heart
shaped mount. Above this is  a  superb  amethyst  with  a  diamond-encrusted
cross set with an emerald.
Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother's Crown was  made  for  her  coronation  as
queen consort in 1937. This graceful crown is set with  diamonds,  dominated
by the famous Koh-i-noor. Its Indian name means "Mountain of Light" and  the
jewel has a long and turbulent history. Tradition says that its male  owners
will suffer misfortune, but women who possess it will rule the world.



                                 Ceremonies


  These are some of the ceremonies that take place at the Tower of London.

                              Ceremony of Keys

      The traditional locking up of the Tower of  London  each  night.  This
ceremony has been carried out every night for the last 700 years.
      Set admit the mighty battlements of this ancient historic fortress, it
is one of the oldest and most colourful surviving ceremonies of  it's  kind,
having been  enacted  every  night  without  fail  for  approximately  seven
hundred years, in much the same form as we know it today.
      The exact origin of  the  Ceremony  is  somewhat  obscure,  though  it
probably dates from the time of the White Tower - the great Norman  fortress
commenced by William the Conqueror and completed in about 1080 AD  -  become
regularly used as a Royal stronghold in the capital city.
      As the fortifications around the Tower were  increased  from  time  to
time so it became used not only as Royal residence, but  also  as  the  Mint
and State Prison. The Country's gold was stored at the Tower,  as  were  the
Royal Records and  Royal  Regalia,  and  numerous  historical  figures  were
imprisoned within it's walls for political reasons, many of whom were  never
to emerge to freedom, dying either from natural causes or  by  execution  on
Tower Green or Tower Hill.
      The surrounding populaces were not always in sympathy with  activities
inside the Tower, and as  enemies  of  the  King  might  attempt  to  rescue
prisoners or to steal the Crown Jewels,  the  need  for  security  was  very
great. Thus it was in olden times that every night  at  dusk  the  Gentlemen
Porter - now known as the Chief Yeoman  Warder  -  would  collect  an  armed
escort, and would Lock and secure all the gates and doors leading  into  the
Tower, thereby making it proof against  hostile  attack  or  intrigue,  This
done, the Keys would be handed over to the Tower Governor for  safe  keeping
during the night.
      In 1826, the Duke of Wellington (then Constable of the Tower)  ordered
that the time of the Ceremony be fixed at ten o'clock each night, so  as  to
ensure that his soldiers were all inside the Tower  before  the  gates  were
locked.
      Accordingly, every night at exactly 7 minutes to ten, the Chief Warder
emerges from the Byward Tower, carrying  the  traditional  lantern  -  still
lighted with a piece of candle - and in  the  other  the  Queen's  Keys.  He
proceeds  at  a  dignified  pace  to  the  Bloody  Tower,  where  an  escort
consisting of two sentries, - a Sergeant and a  representative  Drummer  are
marched to the outer gate. En route, all guards and  sentries  present  arms
as the Queen's Keys pass.
      As the Chief Warder shuts and locks the great oak doors of  first  the
Middle Tower and then the Byward Tower, the escort halt and present arms.
They now return along Water Lane towards the Wakefield Tower, where  in  the
deep shadows of the Bloody Tower Archway a sentry waits and watches.
As the Chief Warder and escort approach, the sentry's challenge rings out.
"Halt!" the escort is halted.
"Who comes there?"

"The Keys" replies the Chief Warder.

"Who's Keys?"

"Queen Elizabeth's Keys" is the answer.

"Pass Queen Elizabeth's Keys - All's well".
Whereupon the Chief Warder and escort proceed through  the  archway  towards
the steps by the 13th century wall, where the Guard for the night  is  drawn
up under an officer with drawn sword, The Chief Warder and  escort  halt  at
the foot of the steps. The Officer gives the command,  Guard  and  Escort  -
present arms. The Chief Warder takes two paces  forward,  raises  his  Tudor
bonnet high in the air and calls  out  God  preserve  Queen  Elizabeth.  The
Whole Guard reply Amen, and as the  parade  ground  clock  chimes  ten,  the
Drummer (bugler) sounds the Last Post.
The Chief Warder takes the Keys to the house of the Resident  Governor,  and
the Guard is dismissed.


                    The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses


      The Wakefield Tower, built originally for defensive  purposes  swiftly
became the Presence Chamber of Plantagenet kings. It is with  an  indication
of this ancient role that you see it today. In a recess is the Oratory  with
an altar chest, bearing the likeness of King Henry VI and the Arms  of  Eton
College and King's College, Cambridge. In front is an appraisal of the  King
by his confessor, John Blacman.
      In 1471 King Henry VI, founder of those Colleges was held  a  prisoner
in this tower. He was murdered at  these  prayers  in  the  Oratory  between
eleven and twelve o'clock on the night of the 21st May. His  body  rests  in
St George's Chapel at Windsor, in which Castle he was born  on  the  6th  of
December 1421.
      The King's birthday has long been celebrated by both his  Colleges  as
Founders Day and since 1905 two Kin's Scholars of Eton have laid a sheaf  of
its white lilies on his tomb on that day.
      Through the friendly interest of Sir George Younghusband, then  Keeper
of the Jewel House, King George V was  graciously  pleased  to  approve  the
setting of a marble tablet in the Oratory at the  spot  where  by  tradition
King Henry VI met his death. Eton lilies have since been laid there  in  the
evening of each anniversary. By the Sovereign's sanction and  with  approval
of the Constable of the Tower, the arrangements  for  this  annual  ceremony
were delegated to the incumbent Keeper of the Jewel House; and  it  was  not
neglected even during the Second World War, when  HM  Tower  of  London  was
restricted area and the Wakefield Tower itself was hit by a German bomb.
      In 1947, the  Provost  and  Scholars  at  King's  College,  Cambridge,
secured the permission of the King  and  the  Constable  to  associate  King
Henry's sister foundation with the ceremony. The white roses  of  Kings,  in
their purple ribbon, have since been laid  alongside  the  Eton  lilies,  in
their pale blue, on the Founder's stone.
      The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses. Though still a very simple  one,
has over the years acquired a certain form and  formality.  The  Provost  of
Eton or his deputy, the Provost of King's or his deputy,  and  the  Chaplain
of the Tower are conducted by the Resident Governor and Keeper of the  Jewel
House, with  an  escort  of  Yeoman  Warders,  from  Queen's  House  to  the
Wakefield Tower. The Chaplain conducts the short service and the lilies  and
roses are ceremoniously laid: to lie until dusk on the  next  day  as  token
that King Henry's memory is  ever  green  in  the  two  Colleges  which  are
perhaps his most enduring monument.


                                Ghost Stories


      There are many stories of ghosts, poltergeists  and  other  malevolent
spirits connected to the Tower of London. Who hasn't  heard  the  one  about
the headless apparition of Anne Boleyn stalking the Tower grounds at  night.
Who for instance, hasn't heard stories  of  the  chained  and  headless  Sir
Walter Raliegh being seen on  the  ramparts  close  to  where  he  was  kept
prisoner. The Tower of London with its  900  years  of  history  has  earned
itself a multitude of spine tingling stories, mainly  due  to  its  infamous
reputation as a place of execution. The following stories are  different  in
the fact that as far as we know, they have never been told before, at  least
not beyond the boundaries of the Tower of London.


                          The Ghost of Anne Boleyn


      Anne Boleyn, the most celebrated  of  the  wives  of  Henry  VIII  was
beheaded on Tower Green in 1536. Her ghost has frequently been seen both  on
the Green and more spectacularly in the Chapel Royal situated in  the  White
Tower. It was in the Chapel that a Captain of the Guard saw a light  burning
in the locked Chapel late at night. Finding a ladder, he was  able  to  look
down on the  strange  scene  being  enacted  within.  A  nineteenth  century
account described it thus:
      Slowly down the aisle  moved  a  stately  procession  of  Knights  and
Ladies, attired in ancient costumes; and in front walked an  elegant  female
whose face was averted from him, but whose figure greatly resembled the  one
he had seen in reputed portraits of Anne  Boleyn.  After  having  repeatedly
paced  the  chapel,  the  entire  procession   together   with   the   light
disappeared. (excerpt from Ghostly Visitors by  "Spectre  Stricken",  London
1882.)
      Another account of this same story tells of how the procession  always
occurs on the anniversary of the terrible execution  of  Margaret  Pole  the
Countess of Salisbury, in 1541. This brave old lady (she  was  over  seventy
when  she  was  killed)  suffered  because  of  her  son's  (Cardinal  Pole)
vilification of the King Henry VIII's  religious  doctrines,  something  the
Cardinal did from the safety of France. So  when  Henry  realised  that  the
Cardinal was out of his reach his mother was brought to  the  block  instead
as an act of vengeance. Instead of submitting weekly to the  axeman  however
she refused to lie down and was pursued by the axeman around  the  scaffold.
Swinging wildly he inflicted the most hideous wounds on  her  till  at  last
she died.
      Another sighting of Anne Boleyn  is  alledged  in  1864  by  a  sentry
standing guard at the Queen's house. The guard saw and  challenged  a  white
shape that appeared  suddenly  veiled  in  mist.  When  the  challenge  went
unanswered the sentry put his bayonet into the figure but  he  was  overcome
with shock when it went straight through  the  figure  without  meeting  any
resistance. This story was corroborated by two onlookers who saw  the  whole
event from a window of the Bloody Tower. It  is  not  known  what  made  the
sentry and the onlookers believe that this was the ghost of Anne Boleyn  but
we can only accept that after 100 years of tradition it must be so.


                               Traitors’ Gate


      The Traitors' Gate was the watergate entrance for prisoners  condemned
after trial at Westminster. It dates from 1240 when Henry III  enlarged  the
fortress by building extra defence works. There is a  story  that  when  the
work was nearing completion on St George's day 1240 there was a great  storm
that resulted in the foundation's being undermined and this resulted in  the
gate collapsing. When the circumstances were  repeated  identically  a  year
later an inquiry revealed that a priest claimed to have seen  the  ghost  of
Sir Thomas Becket striking the walls with  a  crucifix.  He  said  that  the
ghost was proclaiming that the new building was not for the common good  but
"for the injury and prejudice of the Londoners, my brethren". Since  it  was
the King's grandfather who had caused the death of the saint he felt it  was
wise to include a small oratory in the tower of the new building  dedicating
it to Sir Thomas Becket. Even so it's rooms have always had a reputation  of
being haunted. Doors open and close without reason, the figure of a monk  in
a brown robe has been seen.  Ghostly  footsteps  including  the  distinctive
slap of monastic sandals are sometimes heard.
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