GEORGE
                       WASHINGTON



                                                        By: Katya Zemtsova
                                                            9D, school  17

 supervisor: Beletskaya S. A.



                                    2001
                   



                                   

                              

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                                                    9 Ĕ 
                                                     17

                                                    

                                                   


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                                    2001
                              GEORGE WASHINGTON
                              (1ST   PRESIDENT)

                                    Plan

    1. Name
    2. Physical Description
    3. Personality
    4. Ancestors
    5. Father
    6. Mother
    7. Siblings
    8. Collateral relatives
    9. Children
   10. Birth
   11. Childhood
   12. Education
   13. Religion
   14. Recreation
   15. Early romance
         A) Betsy Fauntleroy
         B) Mary Philipse
         C) Sally Fairfax
   16. Marriage
   17. Military Service
   18. Career before the presidency
         A) French and Indian War, 1754  1763
         B) Member of House of Burgesses (1759  1774)
         C) Delegate to Continental Congress (1774  1775)
         D) Commander of Chief of Continental Army during Revolution (1775 
            1783)
         E) President of Constitutional Convention, 1787
   19. Election as President, First Term, 1789
   20. Election as President, Second Term, 1792
   21. INAUGURAL ADDRESS (First)
   22. INAUGURAL ADDRESS (Second)
   23. VICE PRESIDENT
        CABINET:
          A) Secretary state:
          B) Secretary of the treasury
          C) Secretary of war
          D) Attorney General
   24. ADMINISTRATION
         A) Presidents
         B) Indian Affairs
         C) Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
         D) Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
         E) Jays. Treaty, 1795
         F) Pinckneys Treaty, 1795
         G) Farewell Address, 1796
         H) Sates Admitted to the Union
         I) Constitutional Amendments Ratified
   25. SUPERME COURT APPOINTMENTS
   26. Ranking in 1962 historians poll
   27. Retirement
   28. Death
   29. Washingtons praise (speech)
   30. Washingtons criticized (speech)
   31. Washingtons quote(s) (speech)

NAME: George Washington. He was probably  named  after  George  Eskridge,  a
lawyer in whose charge Washington's  mother  had  been  left  when  she  was
orphaned.
    PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Washington was a large, powerful manabout 6 feet
2 inches tall, 175 pounds in his prime, up to more than 200 pounds in  later
years. Erect in bearing, muscular, broad shouldered, he had large hands  and
feet (size 13 shoes), a long face with high  cheekbones,  a  large  straight
nose, determined chin, blue-gray eyes beneath heavy  brows  and  dark  brown
hair, which on formal occasions he powdered and tied in a  queue.  His  fair
complexion bore the marks of smallpox he contracted as a young man. He  lost
his teeth, probably to gum disease, and  wore  dentures.  According  to  Dr.
Reidar Sognnaes, former dean of the University of California at Los  Angeles
School  of  Dentistry,  who  has  made  a  detailed  study  of  Washington's
bridgework,  he  was  fitted  with  numerous  sets  of  dentures,  fashioned
variously from lead, ivory,  and  the  teeth  of  humans,  cows,  and  other
animals, but not from wood, as was popularly believed. Moreover, he was  not
completely toothless. Upon his inauguration  as  president,  Washington  had
one of his own teeth left to work alongside the dentures. He  began  wearing
reading glasses during the Revolution. He dressed fashionably.
    PERSONALITY: A man of quiet strength, he took few friends into complete
confidence. His critics mistook his dignified reserve  for  pomposity.  Life
for Washington  was  a  serious  mission,  a  job  to  be  tackled  soberly,
unremittingly. He had  little  time  for  humor.  Although  basically  good-
natured, he wrestled with his temper and  sometimes  lost.  He  was  a  poor
speaker and could become utterly inarticulate without a  prepared  text.  He
preferred to express himself on paper. Still, when  he  did  speak,  he  was
candid, direct, and looked people squarely in the  eye.  Biographer  Douglas
Southall Freeman conceded that Washington's "ambition for  wealth  made  him
acquisitive  and  sometimes  contentious."   Even   after   Washington   had
established himself, Freeman pointed out, "he would insist  upon  the  exact
payment of every farthing due him" and was  determined  "to  get  everything
that he honestly could."  Yet  neither  his  ambition  to  succeed  nor  his
acquisitive nature ever threatened his basic integrity.
    ANCESTORS: Through his paternal grandmother, Mildred Warner Washington,
he descended from King Edward III (1312-1377) of England.  His  great-great-
grandfather the  Reverend  Lawrence  Washington  (c.  1602-1653)  served  as
rector of All Saints, Purleigh Parish, Essex, England, but  was  fired  when
certain Puritan members  accused  him  of  being  a  "common  frequenter  of
Alehouses,  not  only  himself  sitting  daily  tippling  there,  but   also
encouraging  others  in  that  beastly  vice."  His  great-grandfather  John
Washington sailed to America about  1656,  intending  to  remain  just  long
enough to take on a load of tobacco. But shortly after pushing  off  on  the
return trip, his ketch sank. Thus John remained in Virginia,  where  he  met
and married Anne Pope, the president's great-grandmother.
    FATHER: Augustine Washington (16947-1743), planter. Known to friends as
Gus, he spent much of his time acquiring and overseeing  some  10,000  acres
of land in the Potomac region, running  an  iron  foundry,  and  tending  to
business affairs in England.  It  was  upon  returning  from  one  of  these
business trips in 1730  that  he  discovered  that  his  wife,  Jane  Butler
Washington, had died in his absence. On  March  6,  1731,  he  married  Mary
Ball, who gave  birth  to  George  Washington  11  months  later.  Augustine
Washington died when George was 11 years old. > Because  business  had  kept
Mr. Washington away from home so much, George remembered  him  only  vaguely
as a tall, fair, kind man.
    MOTHER: Mary Ball  Washington  (c.  1709-1789).  Fatherless  at  3  and
orphaned at 12, she  was  placed,  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  her
mother's  will,  under  the  guardianship  of  George  Eskridge,  a  lawyer.
Washington's relationship with his mother  was  forever  strained.  Although
she was by no means poor, she regularly asked for  and  received  money  and
goods from George. Still she complained, often to outsiders,  that  she  was
destitute and neglected by her children, much to George's embarrassment.  In
1755, while her son was away serving his king in the French and Indian  War,
stoically suffering the hardships of camp life, she wrote to him asking  for
more butter and a new  house  servant.  Animosity  between  mother  and  son
persisted until her death from cancer in the first year of his presidency.
    SIBLINGS: By his father's first marriage,  George  Washington  had  two
half brothers to live to maturityLawrence Washington, surrogate  father  to
George after the death of their father, and Augustine  "Austin"  Washington.
He also had three brothers and one sister to  live  to  maturityMrs.  Betty
Lewis; Samuel  Washington;  John  Augustine  "Jack"  Washington,  father  of
Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington; and  Charles  Washington,  founder
of Charles Town, West "Virginia.
    COLLATERAL RELATIVES: Washington was a half first cousin twice  removed
of President James Madison, a second cousin seven  times  removed  of  Queen
Elizabeth II (1926-) of the United Kingdom, a third cousin twice removed  of
Confederate General Robert E. Lee, and an eighth cousin  six  times  removed
of Winston Churchill.
    CHILDREN:  Washington  had  no  natural  children;  thus,   no   direct
descendant of Washington survives. He adopted his wife's two  children  from
a previous marriage, John Parke  Custis  and  Martha  Parke  Custis.  John's
granddaughter Mary Custis married Robert E. Lee.
    BIRTH: Washington was born at the family estate on the  south  bank  of
the Potomac River near the  mouth  of  Pope's  Creek,  Westmoreland  County,
Virginia, at 10 A.M. on February 22, 1732 (Old Style February 11,  the  date
Washington always celebrated as  his  birthday;  in  1752  England  and  the
colonies adopted the New Style, or Gregorian, calendar to  replace  the  Old
Style, or Julian, calendar). He was christened on April 5, 1732.
    CHILDHOOD: Little is known of  Washington's  childhood.  The  legendary
cherry tree incident and his inability  to  tell  lies,  of  course,  sprang
wholly from the imagination of Parson Weems.  Clearly  the  single  greatest
influence on young George was  his  half  brother  Lawrence,  14  years  his
senior. Having lost his father when he was 11, George looked  upon  Lawrence
as a surrogate father  and  undoubtedly  sought  to  emulate  him.  Lawrence
thought a career at sea might suit his little brother and arranged  for  his
appointment as midshipman in  the  British  navy.  George  loved  the  idea.
Together they tried to convince George's  mother  of  the  virtues  of  such
service, but Mary Washington was adamantly opposed. George, then  14,  could
have run away to sea, as did many  boys  of  his  day,  but  he  reluctantly
respected his mother's wishes and turned down the appointment. At 16  George
moved in with Lawrence at his estate, which he called  Mount  Vernon,  after
Admiral Edward Vernon, commander of British forces in the West Indies  while
Captain Lawrence Washington served with  the  American  Regiment  there.  At
Mount Vernon George honed his surveying skills and  looked  forward  to  his
twenty-first birthday, when he was  to  receive  his  inheritance  from  his
father's estatethe Ferry Farm, near Fredericksburg, where  the  family  had
lived from 1738 and where his mother remained until her  death;  half  of  a
4,000-acre tract; three lots in Fredericksburg; 10 slaves; and a portion  of
his father's personal property.
    EDUCATION: Perhaps because she did not want to part with her eldest son
for an extended period, perhaps because  she  did  not  want  to  spend  the
money, the widow Washington refused to send George to school in England,  as
her late husband had done for his older boys, but  instead  exposed  him  to
the irregular education common in colonial  Virginia.  Just  who  instructed
George is unknown, but by age 11 he had picked up  basic  reading,  writing,
and mathematical skills. Math was his  best  subject.  Unlike  many  of  the
Founding Fathers, Washington never found time  to  learn  French,  then  the
language of diplomacy,  and  did  not  attend  university.  He  applied  his
mathematical mind to surveying, an occupation much  in  demand  in  colonial
Virginia, where men's fortunes were reckoned  in  acres  of  tobacco  rather
than pounds of gold.
    RELIGION: Episcopalian. However, religion played only a minor  role  in
his life. He fashioned a moral code based on his  own  sense  of  right  and
wrong and adhered to it rigidly. He referred rarely to God or Jesus  in  his
writings  but  rather  to  Providence,  a  rather   amorphous   supernatural
substance that controlled men's lives.  He  strongly  believed  in  fate,  a
force so powerful, he maintained, as "not to be resisted  by  the  strongest
efforts of human nature."
    RECREATION: Washington learned billiards when young, played cards,  and
especially enjoyed the ritual of the fox hunt.  In  later  years,  he  often
spent evenings reading newspapers aloud to his wife.  He  walked  daily  for
exercise.
    EARLY ROMANCE: Washington was somewhat stiff and  awkward  with  girls,
probably often tongue-tied. In his mid-teens he vented  his  frustration  in
such moonish doggerel as, "Ah! woe's me, that I should  love  and  conceal,/
Long have
    I wish'd, but never dare reveal,/ Even though severely  Loves  Pains  I
feel." Before  he  married  Martha,  Washington's  love  life  was  full  of
disappointment.
    Betsy Fauntleroy. The daughter of a justice and burgess  from  Richmond
County, Virginia, she was but 16 when she attracted Washington, then 20.  He
pressed his suit repeatedly, but, repulsed at every turn,  he  finally  gave
up.
    Mary Philipse. During a trip to Boston to  straighten  out  a  military
matter in 1756, Washington stopped off  in  New  York  and  there  met  Mary
Philipse, 26, daughter of Frederick Philipse, a wealthy  landowner.  Whether
he was taken with her  charms  or  her  51,000  acres  is  unknown,  but  he
remained in the city a week and is said to have proposed. She later  married
Roger Morris, and together they were  staunch  Tories  during  the  American
Revolution.
    Sally Fairfax. From the time he met Sarah Gary "Sally" Fairfax  as  the
18-year-old bride  of  his  friend  and  neighbor  George  William  Fairfax,
Washington was infatuated  with  her  easy  charm,  graceful  bearing,  good
humor, rare beauty,  and  intelligence.  Although  the  relationship  almost
certainly never got beyond flirtation, the two had strong feelings for  each
other and corresponded often. In one letter written to her  in  1758,  at  a
time when he was engaged to Martha, he blurted his love, albeit  cryptically
lest the note fall into the wrong hands. He confessed he was in love with  a
woman well known to her and then continued, "You have drawn me, dear  Madam,
or rather I have drawn myself, into an honest confession of a  simple  Fact.
Misconstrue not my meaning; doubt it not, nor expose it. The  world  has  no
business to know the object of my Love, declared  in  this  manner  to  you,
when I want to conceal it." As heartbroken as  Washington  appears  to  have
been over the hopelessness of the relationship, the anguish might have  been
greater had he pressed the affair, for  the  Fairfaxes  would  not  come  to
share Washington's passion for an independent America.  In  1773,  the  year
American resentment over British taxes erupted  in  the  Boston  Tea  Party,
Sally and George Fairfax left  Virginia  for  England,  where  they  settled
permanently, loyal subjects to the end.
    MARRIAGE: Washington, 26, married Martha Dandridge Custis, 27, a  widow
with two children, on January 6, 1759, at her estate,  known  as  the  White
House, on the Pamunkey River northwest of Williamsburg.  Born  in  New  Kent
County, Virginia, on June 21,  1731,  the  daughter  of  John  Dandridge,  a
planter, and Frances Jones Dandridge, Martha was a rather  small,  pleasant-
looking woman, practical, with good common sense if not a  great  intellect.
At 18 she married Daniel Parke Custis, a  prominent  planter  of  more  than
17,000 acres. By him she had four children, two of whom survived  childhood.
Her husband died intestate in 1757, leaving Martha reputedly the  wealthiest
marriageable woman in Virginia. It seems likely that  Washington  had  known
Martha and her husband for some time. In March 1758 he visited her at  White
House twice; the second time he came  away  with  either  an  engagement  of
marriage or at least her promise to think about his proposal. Their  wedding
was a grand affair. The groom appeared in a suit of  blue  and  silver  with
red trimming  and  gold  knee  buckles.  After  the  Reverend  Peter  Mossum
pronounced them man and wife, the couple  honeymooned  at  White  House  for
several weeks before setting up housekeeping at Washington's  Mount  Vernon.
Their marriage appears to have been a solid one,  untroubled  by  infidelity
or  clash  of  temperament.  During  the  American  Revolution  she  endured
considerable hardship to visit her husband at  field  headquarters.  As  the
First Lady, Mrs. Washington hosted many affairs of state  at  New  York  and
Philadelphia (the capital was moved to Washington in 1800  under  the  Adams
administration). After Washington's death in 1799, she grew morose and  died
on May 22, 1802.
    MILITARY SERVICE: Washington served in the Virginia militia (1752-1754,
1755-1758), rising from major to colonel, and as commander in chief  of  the
Continental army (1775-1783), with the rank of general. See  "Career  before
the Presidency."
    CAREER BEFORE THE PRESIDENCY: In 1749  Washington  accepted  his  first
appointment, that of surveyor of Culpepper County, Virginia,  having  gained
much experience in that trade the previous year during an expedition  across
the Blue Ridge Mountains on behalf of  Lord  Fairfax.  Two  years  later  he
accompanied his half  brother  Lawrence  to  Barbados.  Lawrence,  dying  of
tuberculosis, had hoped to find a cure in the mild climate. Instead,  George
came down with a near-fatal dose of smallpox. With the  deaths  of  Lawrence
and Lawrence's daughter in 1752, George inherited Mount  Vernon,  an  estate
that prospered under his management and one that throughout his life  served
as welcome refuge from the pressures of public life.
    French and Indian War, 1754-1763. In 1752 Washington received his first
military appointment as a major in the Virginia militia. On  a  mission  for
Governor Robert Dinwiddie during October 1753-January 1754, he delivered  an
ultimatum to the French at Fort Le Boeuf, demanding  their  withdrawal  from
territory claimed by Britain. The French refused. The French  and  the  Ohio
Company, a group of  Virginians  anxious  to  acquire  western  lands,  were
competing for control of the site  of  present-day  Pittsburgh.  The  French
drove the Ohio Company from the area and at the confluence of the  Allegheny
and Monongahela rivers constructed Fort  Duquesne.  Promoted  to  lieutenant
colonel in March 1754, Washington oversaw construction of Fort Necessity  in
what is  now  Fayette  County,  Pennsylvania.  However,  he  was  forced  to
surrender that outpost to superior French and Indian forces in July 1754,  a
humiliating defeat that  temporarily  gave  France  control  of  the  entire
region. Later that year, Washington, disgusted  with  officers  beneath  his
rank who claimed superiority because they were  British  regulars,  resigned
his commission. He returned to service, however, in 1755 as an  aide-de-camp
to General Edward Braddock. In the disastrous engagement at  which  Braddock
was mortally wounded in July 1755, Washington managed to herd what was  left
of the force to orderly retreat, as twice his horse was shot out from  under
him. The next month he was promoted to colonel and regimental commander.  He
resigned from the militia in December 1758 following  his  election  to  the
Virginia House of Burgesses.
    Member  of  House  of  Burgesses,  1759-1774.  In  July  1758   Colonel
Washington was elected one of Frederick County's two representatives in  the
House of Burgesses. He joined those  protesting  Britain's  colonial  policy
and in 1769 emerged a leader of the  Association,  created  at  an  informal
session of the House of Burgesses, after it had been dissolved by the  royal
governor, to  consider  the  most  effective  means  of  boycotting  British
imports. Washington favored cutting trade sharply but opposed  a  suspension
of all commerce with Britain. He also did not  approve  of  the  Boston  Tea
Party of December  1773.  But  soon  thereafter  he  came  to  realize  that
reconciliation with the mother country was no  longer  possible.  Meanwhile,
in 1770, Washington undertook a nine-week expedition  to  the  Ohio  country
where, as compensation for his service in the French and Indian War, he  was
to inspect and claim more than 20,000 acres of land for himself and tens  of
thousands more for the men who had served under him. He had taken  the  lead
in pressing the  Virginia  veterans'  claim.  I  might  add,  without  much
arrogance, he later wrote, that if it  had  not  been  for  my  unremitted
attention to every favorable circumstance, not a single acre of  land  would
ever have been obtained.
    Delegate to Continental Congress, 1774-1775. A member of  the  Virginia
delegation to  the  First  and  Second  Continental  Congresses,  Washington
served on various military preparedness committees and was chairman  of  the
committee to consider ways to raise arms and ammunition  for  the  impending
Revolution. He voted for measures designed  to  reconcile  differences  with
Britain peacefully but realized that such  efforts  now  were  futile.  John
Adams of  Massachusetts,  in  a  speech  so  effusive  in  its  praise  that
Washington rushed in embarrassment from the chamber, urged  that  Washington
be named commander in chief of the newly  authorized  Continental  army.  In
June 1775, delegates unanimously approved the  choice  of  Washington,  both
for his military experience and, more pragmatically, to enlist  a  prominent
Virginian to lead a struggle that heretofore had  been  spearheaded  largely
by northern revolutionaries.
    Commander in chief of Continental Army  during  Revolution,  1775-1783.
With a poorly trained, undisciplined force comprised of short-term  militia,
General Washington took to the field  against  crack  British  regulars  and
Hessian mercenaries. In March 1776 he thrilled New  Englanders  by  flushing
the redcoats from Boston, but his loss of New York City and  other  setbacks
later that year dispelled any hope of  a  quick  American  victory.  Sagging
American morale got a boost when  Washington  slipped  across  the  Delaware
River to New Jersey and defeated superior enemy forces at Trenton  (December
1776) and Princeton (January 1777). But humiliating  defeats  at  Brandywine
(September 1777) and Germantown (October 1777) and the  subsequent  loss  of
Philadelphia undermined Washington's prestige  in  Congress.  Richard  Henry
Lee, Benjamin Rush, and others conspired to remove  Washington  and  replace
him with General Horatio Gates, who had defeated General  John  Burgoyne  at
the  Battle  of  Saratoga   (October   1777).   Washington's   congressional
supporters rallied to  quash  the  so-called  Conway  Cabal.  Prospects  for
victory seemed bleak as Washington settled his men into winter  quarters  at
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, in December 1777.
    "To see men without clothes to cover their nakedness," Washington wrote
in tribute to the men who  suffered  with  him  at  Valley  Forge,  "without
blankets to lay on, without shoes, by which their marches  might  be  traced
by the blood from their feet, and almost  as  often  without  provisions  as
with; marching through frost and snow, and  at  Christmas  taking  up  their
winter quarters within a day's march of the enemy, without a  house  or  hut
to cover them till they could be built,  and  submitting  to  it  without  a
murmur, is a mark of patience and obedience which in my opinion  can  scarce
be paralleled." Of course,  some  did  grumble  and  loudly.  "No  pay!  no
clothes! no provisions! no rum!" some chanted. But remarkably there  was  no
mass desertion, no mutiny. Patriotism, to be sure, sustained  many,  but  no
more so than did confidence in Washington's  ability  to  see  them  through
safely. With the snow-clogged roads impassable to  supply  wagons,  the  men
stayed alive on such fare as pepper pot soup, a thin  tripe  broth  flavored
with a handful of peppercorns. Many  died  there  that  winter.  Those  that
survived drew  fresh  hope  with  the  greening  of  spring  and  the  news,
announced to them by  General  Washington  in  May  1778,  that  France  had
recognized the independence of America. Also encouraging was the arrival  of
Baron Friedrich von Steuben, who, at  Washington's  direction,  drilled  the
debilitated Valley Forge  survivors  into  crack  troops.  Washington's  men
broke camp in June 1778, a revitalized army  that,  with  aid  from  France,
took the war to the British and in October 1781  boxed  in  General  Charles
Cornwallis at Yorktown, thus forcing the surrender of British forces.
    General Washington imposed strict, but not punitive,  surrender  terms:
All weapons and military supplies must  be  given  up;  all  booty  must  be
returned, but the enemy soldiers could keep their personal effects  and  the
officers could retain their sidearms. British doctors were allowed  to  tend
to  their  own  sick  and  wounded.  Cornwallis  accepted,  but  instead  of
personally  leading  his  troops  to  the  mutually  agreed-upon  point   of
surrender on October 19, 1781, he sent his deputy Brigadier Charles  O'Hara.
As he made his way along the road flanked by  American  and  French  forces,
O'Hara came face to face with Washington and the Comte  de  Rochambeau,  the
latter decked out in lavish military regalia. O'Hara mistook Rochambeau  for
the senior commander, but the French officer quickly pointed to  Washington,
and  O'Hara,  probably  somewhat  embarrassed,  turned  to   the   American.
Unwilling to deal with a man of lesser rank, Washington directed  O'Hara  to
submit the sword of capitulation to his aide General  Benjamin  Lincoln.  In
his victory dispatch to  Congress,  Washington  wrote  with  obvious  pride,
Sir, I have the Honor to inform Congress, that a Reduction of  the  British
Army under the Command of Lord Cornwallis, is  most  happily  effected.  The
unremitting Ardor which actuated every Officer and Soldier in  the  combined
Army in this Occasion, has principally led to this Important  Event,  at  an
earlier period than my most sanguine Hope had  induced  me  to  expect.  In
November 1783,  two  months  after  the  formal  peace  treaty  was  signed,
Washington resigned his  commission  and  returned  home  to  the  neglected
fields of Mount Vernon.
    President of Constitutional Convention, 1787.  Washington,  a  Virginia
delegate, was unanimously elected president of the convention. He was  among
those  favoring  a  strong  federal  government.  After  the  convention  he
promoted ratification of the Constitution  in  Virginia.  According  to  the
notes of Abraham Baldwin, a Georgia delegate,  which  were  discovered  only
recently and made public in 1987, Washington said privately that he did  not
expect the Constitution to last more than 20 years.
    ELECTION AS PRESIDENT, FIRST TERM, 1789: Washington, a Federalist,  was
the obvious choice for the first president of the United  States.  A  proven
leader whose popularity transcended the  conflict  between  Federalists  and
those opposed to a strong central government, the man most  responsible  for
winning independence, a modest country squire with  a  winsome  aversion  to
the limelight, he so dominated the political landscape that not 1 of the  69
electors voted against him. Thus,  he  carried  all  10  statesConnecticut,
Delaware, Georgia,  Maryland,  Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey,
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia. (Neither North  Carolina  nor  Rhode
Island had ratified the Constitution yet. New York was unable to  decide  in
time which electors to send.) Washington was the only president  elected  by
a unanimous electoral vote. John Adams  of  Massachusetts,  having  received
the second-largest number of votes, 34, was elected vice president.
    election as president, second term, 1792: Despite the growing  strength
of  Democratic-Republicans,  Washington   continued   to   enjoy   virtually
universal support. Again he won the vote of every  elector,  132,  and  thus
carried all 15 statesConnecticut, Delaware,  Georgia,  Kentucky,  Maryland,
Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey,  New  York,  North   Carolina,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South  Carolina,  Vermont,  and  Virginia.  John
Adams of Massachusetts received the second-highest number of votes, 77,  and
thus again became vice president.
    INAUGURAL ADDRESS (FIRST): New York City, April 30, 1789. ". . . When I
was first honored with a call into the service of my country,  then  on  the
eve of an  arduous  struggle  for  its  liberties,  the  light  in  which  I
contemplated my  duty  required  that  I  should  renounce  every  pecuniary
compensation. From this resolution I  have  in  no  instance  departed;  and
being still under the impressions which  produced  it,  I  must  decline  as
inapplicable to myself any share in the personal  emoluments  which  may  be
indispensably  included  in  a  permanent  provision   for   the   executive
department, and must accordingly pray that the pecuniary estimates  for  the
station in which I am placed may during my continuance in it be  limited  to
such actual expenditures as the public good may be thought to require. ..."
    INAUGURAL ADDRESS (SECOND): Philadelphia, March 4, 1793. (This was  the
shortest inaugural address, just 135 words.) "Fellow Citizens:  I  am  again
called upon by the voice of my country  to  execute  the  functions  of  its
Chief Magistrate. When the occasion proper for  it  shall  arrive,  I  shall
endeavor to express the high sense I entertain of this distinguished  honor,
and of the confidence which has been reposed in me by the people  of  united
America.
    "Previous to the execution of any official act  of  the  President  the
Constitution requires an oath of office. This oath I am now about  to  take,
and in your presence: That if it shall be found during my administration  of
the Government I have in any instance violated willingly  or  knowingly  the
injunctions thereof, I may (besides incurring constitutional punishment)  be
subject to the upbraidings of all who  are  now  witnesses  of  the  present
solemn ceremony."
    VICE PRESIDENT: John Adams (1735-1826), of Massachusetts, served  1789-
1797. See "John Adams, 2d President."
    CABINET:
    Secretary of State. (1)  Thomas  Jefferson  (1743-1826),  of  Virginia,
served 1790-1793. See "Thomas Jefferson, 3d President," "Career  before  the
Presidency." (2) Edmund Jennings Randolph (1753-1813), of  Virginia,  served
1794-1795. Author of the Randolph (or Virginia)  plan,  favoring  the  large
states, at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Transferred from  attorney
general, he remained aloof of the struggle between Jefferson  and  Alexander
Hamilton. Denounced by supporters of both, he was  largely  ineffective  and
was forced to resign amid unfounded charges that he had misused  his  office
for private gain.  (3)  Timothy  Pickering  (1745-1829),  of  Massachusetts,
served  1795-1800.  Transferred  from  war  secretary,  he  was  a   staunch
Hamiltonian and stayed on in the Adams administration.
    Secretary of the Treasury. (1) Alexander Hamilton  (c.  1755-1804),  of
New York, served 1789-1795. President Washington's closest advisor,  he  was
a great admirer of British institutions and a master of power  politics.  He
saw his role in the government as that  of  prime  minister.  His  influence
went beyond economics to include foreign affairs, legal matters,  and  long-
range social planning. He advocated  and  helped  create  a  strong  central
government at the expense of states' rights. He put  the  infant  nation  on
sound financial footing by levying taxes to retire  the  national  debt  and
promoted the creation of a national  bank.  He  also  advocated  tariffs  to
insulate  fledgling  American  manufacturing   from   foreign   competition.
Hamilton's vision of America's  future  encompassed  the  evolution  from  a
largely agrarian society to an industrial giant, a  national  transportation
program to facilitate commerce  and  blur  regional  differences,  a  strong
permanent national defense, and a sound, conservative monetary system.  Even
after resigning his post, he kept  his  hands  on  the  controls  of  power.
Washington continued to consult him. Hamilton's successor,  Oliver  Wolcott,
and  others  in  the  cabinet  took  his  advice.  He  even   helped   draft
Washington's Farewell address. The foremost conservative leader of his  day,
he was anathema to Thomas Jefferson and his supporters. (2)  Oliver  Wolcott
(1760-1833),  of  Connecticut,  served  1795-1800.  A  lawyer  and  Hamilton
supporter, he stayed on in the Adams administration.
    Secretary of War. (1) Henry Knox (1750-1806), of Massachusetts,  served
1789-1794. Chief of  artillery  and  close  adviser  to  General  Washington
during  the  Revolution  and   war   secretary   under   the   Articles   of
Confederation, he was a natural choice for  this  post.  He  pressed  for  a
strong navy. Fort Knox was named after him.  (2)  Timothy  Pickering  (1745-
1829),  of  Massachusetts,  served  January-December,  1795.  A  lawyer  and
veteran of the Revolution, he strengthened the navy. He  resigned  to  serve
as secretary of state. (3) James McHenry (1753-1816),  of  Maryland,  served
1796-1800. He had served as a  surgeon  during  the  Revolution  and  was  a
prisoner of war. He stayed on in the Adams administration. Fort  McHenry  at
Baltimore was named after him.
    Attorney  General.  (1)  Edmund  Jennings  Randolph   (1753-1813),   of
Virginia,  served  1789-1794.  He  helped   draft   President   Washington's
proclamation of  neutrality.  Washington  disregarded  his  opinion  that  a
national bank was unconstitutional.  He  resigned  to  become  secretary  of
state. (2) William Bradford (1755-1795), of Pennsylvania, served  1794-1795.
He was a state supreme court justice at the time  of  his  appointment.  (3)
Charles Lee (1758-1815), of Virginia, served 1795-1801. He was a brother  of
Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee. He urged,  unsuccessfully,  that  the  United
States abandon its policy of  neutrality  and  declare  war  on  France.  He
stayed on in the Adams administration.
    ADMINISTRATION: April 30, 1789-March 3, 1797.
    Precedents.  "Many  things  which  appear  of  little   importance   in
themselves and at the beginning," President Washington observed,  "may  have
great and durable consequences from their having  been  established  at  the
commencement of a new general government."10 With this  in  mind,  then,  he
proceeded cautiously, pragmatically, acting only when  it  seemed  necessary
to flesh out the bare-bones framework of government described  so  sparingly
in the Constitution: (1) In relying on department heads for advice, much  as
he had used his war council during the Revolution, he set  the  pattern  for
future presidents to consult  regularly  with  their  cabinet.  (2)  Because
Congress did not challenge his appointments, largely out of respect for  him
personally rather than out of principle, the custom evolved that  the  chief
executive generally has the right to choose his own cabinet. Congress,  even
when controlled by the opposition party,  usually  routinely  confirms  such
presidential appointments. (3)  How  long  should  a  president  serve?  The
Constitution did not then say. Washington nearly  set  the  precedent  of  a
single term, for he had originally decided to retire in 1793,  but  remained
for a second term when it became clear that the  nonpartisan  government  he
had so carefully fostered was about to fragment. Thus he  set  the  two-term
standard that lasted until  1940.  (4)  When  John  Jay  resigned  as  chief
justice, Washington went outside the bench for a successor  rather  than  to
elevate one of the sitting  justices  to  the  top  position,  as  many  had
expected him to do. In disregarding seniority as a  necessary  qualification
to lead the Supreme Court, Washington established  the  precedent  that  has
enabled his successors to draw from a much more diverse and  younger  talent
pool than that of a handful of aging incumbent jurists.
    Indian Affairs. In 1791 President Washington  dispatched  forces  under
General Arthur St. Clair to subdue the Indians who had been resisting  white
settlement of the Northwest Territory. St. Clair failed, having been  routed
by Miami Chief Little Turtle on the Wabash River. Washington then turned  to
Revolutionary War veteran "Mad" Anthony  Wayne,  who  before  launching  the
expedition spent many months training regular troops in Indian  warfare.  He
marched boldly into the region, constructed a chain of forts, and on  August
20, 1794, crushed the Indians under Little Turtle in the  Battle  of  Fallen
Timbers near present-day Toledo, Ohio. Under the  terms  of  the  Treaty  of
Greenville (1795), the  defeated  tribes  ceded  disputed  portions  of  the
Northwest Territory to the United States and moved west. Through  diplomacy,
President Washington tried with limited  success  to  make  peace  with  the
Creeks and other tribes in the South. In 1792 the president entertained  the
tribal leaders of the Six Nations confederation, including Seneca Chief  Red
Jacket, whom Washington presented with a silver  medal,  a  token  that  the
Indian treasured the rest of his life. Red Jacket, who had led his  warriors
against Washington's army during the Revolution,  rallied  to  the  American
cause during the War of 1812.
    Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793. In the war  between  France,  on  one
side, and Britain, Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, and the Netherlands,  on  the
other, President Washington  in  1793  declared  the  United  States  to  be
"friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers." Although he  avoided
using the word neutrality, his intention was clear.  Critics  denounced  the
proclamation as reneging on the U.S. commitment to its first  ally,  France.
However, it kept the nation out of a war it was ill-prepared to  fight.  The
French minister to the  United  States,  Edmond  Genet,  pointedly  ignoring
Washington's policy,  fomented  pro-French  sentiment  among  Americans  and
arranged for American privateers to  harass  British  shipsactivities  that
prompted President Washington to demand his recall.
    Whiskey Rebellion, 1794. To help pay off the national debt and put  the
nation on a sound economic basis, President Washington  approved  an  excise
tax on liquor. Pennsylvania farmers,  who  regularly  converted  their  corn
crop to alcohol to avoid the prohibitive cost  of  transporting  grain  long
distances to market, refused to pay it.  On  Hamilton's  advice,  Washington
ordered 15,000 militia to the area and personally inspected  troops  in  the
field. This show of strength crushed this first real  challenge  to  federal
authority.
    Jay'5 Treaty, 1795. Washington was roundly criticized by  Jeffersonians
for this treaty with Great Britain. To forestall further conflict  with  the
former mother  country  and  impel  Britain  to  withdraw  its  forces  from
outposts in the Northwest Territory, as it had promised under the  terms  of
the  Treaty  of  Paris  concluding  the  American   Revolution,   Washington
relinquished the U.S. right to neutrality on the  seas.  Any  American  ship
suspected of carrying contraband to the  shores  of  Britain's  enemies  was
subject to search and seizure by the British navy. And Britain  regarded  as
contraband virtually any useful  product,  including  foodstuffs.  Moreover,
Jay's Treaty failed to resolve one of the key disputes standing in  the  way
of rapprochement with Britainimpressment.  Britain's  policy  of  "once  an
Englishman,  always  an  Englishman"  meant  that  even   after   renouncing
allegiance to the crown and becoming a  duly  naturalized  U.S.  citizen,  a
British immigrant was not safe from the king's reach. If while searching  an
American ship for contraband, the British spotted one  of  their  own  among
the crew, they routinely dragged him off and  pressed  him  into  the  Royal
Navy. But for all this, and despite  the  added  strain  on  relations  with
France in the wake of Jay's Treaty, the pact  did  postpone  the  inevitable
conflict  with  Britain  until  1812,  when  America  was  better   prepared
militarily. After the Senate  ratified  the  treaty,  the  House  asked  the
president to release all  pertinent  papers  relating  to  its  negotiation.
Washington refused on the constitutional ground that only the upper  chamber
had approval rights over treaties. He thereby set the precedent  for  future
presidents to resist such congressional petitions.
    Pinckney's  Treaty,  1795.  Under  its  terms,  Washington   normalized
relations with Spain by establishing the boundary between the United  States
and Spanish Florida at the thirty-first parallel. Even more importantly  for
the future of American commerce, the pact granted U.S. vessels  free  access
to the entire length of the  Mississippi  River  and  to  the  port  of  New
Orleans for the purpose of export.
    In other acts of lasting importance, President Washington  signed  into
law bills creating or providing for:

    1789 Oaths of allegiance to be sworn by federal and state officials
         First tariffs to protect domestic manufacturers
         Department of State and War and the Treasury
         Office of postmaster general
         Supreme Court, circuit and federal district courts, and position of
           attorney  general  (Judiciary  Act).  Washington,   of   course,
appointed
           all the first judges to these courts.
    1790 First federal census
         Patent and copyright protection
         Removal of the capital to Philadelphia  in  December  1790  and  to
Washington
           10 years later
    1791 Bank of the United States
    1792 Presidential succession, which placed the president pro tempore of
the
           Senate and the  Speaker  of  the  House  next  behind  the  vice
president in
           line of succession to the presidency
         U.S. Mint of Philadelphia
    1795 Naturalization law, which lengthened  residency  requirement  from
two to
         five years
    Farewell Address, 1796 President Washington announced his retirement in
his celebrated Farewell Address, a pronouncement that  was  printed  in  the
Philadelphia American Daily Advertiser on September 17, 1796, but never  was
delivered orally. In it he warned against the  evils  of  political  parties
and entangling alliances  abroad.  Throughout  his  term  he  had  tried  to
prevent the rise of partisanship, but he had succeeded  only  in  postponing
such division by serving a second term. The Federalists under  Hamilton  and
Adams and the Democratic-Republicans  under  Jefferson  joined  battle  soon
after he announced his retirement.  Washington's  warning  to  remain  aloof
from European struggles Was better heeded. "The great rule  of  conduct  for
us in regard  to  foreign  nations,"  he  advised,  "is,  in  extending  our
commercial relations to have with them as  little  political  connection  as
possible. So  far  as  we  have  already  formed  engagements  let  them  be
fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop." Isolationism  remained
the dominant feature in American foreign policy for the next 100 years.
    States  Admitted  to  the  Union.  Vermont  (1791),  Kentucky   (1792),
Tennessee (1796).
    Constitutional  Amendments  Ratified.  Bill   of   Rights   (first   10
amendments, 1791): (1) Freedom of religion, of  speech,  of  the  press,  to
assemble and petition for redress of grievances. (2)  Right  to  bear  arms.
(3) Restrictions on quartering soldiers in private homes. (4)  Freedom  from
unreasonable search  and  seizure.  (5)Ban  on  double  jeopardy  and  self-
incrimination; guarantees due process  of  law.  (6)  Right  to  speedy  and
public trial. (7) Right to trial by jury.  (8)  Ban  on  excessive  bail  or
fines or cruel and unusual punishment. (9)  Natural  rights  unspecified  in
the Constitution to remain unabridged. (10) Individual states or the  people
retain all powers not specifically delegated to the  federal  government  or
denied to states by the Constitution. Eleventh Amendment (1795):  A  citizen
from one state cannot sue another state.
    SUPREME COURT APPOINTMENTS: (1) John  Jay  (1745-1829),  of  New  York,
served  as  chief  justice  1789-1795.  As  the  first  chief  justice,   he
established court procedure. While on the bench he negotiated  Jay's  Treaty
(see "Administration"). He resigned to serve as governor of  New  York.  (2)
John Rutledge (1739-1800), of South Carolina, served  as  associate  justice
1789-1791. His appointment as chief justice in  1795  was  rejected  by  the
Senate.  (3)  William  Gushing  (1732-1810),  of  Massachusetts,  served  as
associate justice 1789-1810. He  was  the  only  Supreme  Court  justice  to
persist in wearing the formal wig popular among British jurists.  (4)  James
Wilson (1742-1798), of Pennsylvania, served as associate justice  1789-1798.
A Scottish immigrant, he was a signer of the  Declaration  of  Independence.
Speaking for the Court in Chisholm  v.  Georgia  (1793),  he  ruled  that  a
citizen of one state was entitled  to  sue  another  state,  a  decision  so
unpopular that  it  prompted  passage  of  the  Eleventh  Amendment  (1795),
specifically nullifying it. (5) John Blah- (1732-1800), of Virginia,  served
as associate justice 1789-1796.  A  friend  of  Washingtonthey  had  served
together as Virginia delegates to the Constitutional  Conventionhe  brought
to the bench many years of experience on Virginia state  courts.  (6)  James
Iredell (1751-1799), of North Carolina, served as  associate  justice  1790-
1799. An English immigrant,  he  was  at  38  the  youngest  member  of  the
original Supreme Court. His lone  dissent  in  Chisholm  v.  Georgia  (1793)
formed the basis of the Eleventh Amendment (1795). (7) Thomas Johnson (1732-
1819), of Maryland, served as  associate  justice  1791-1793.  A  friend  of
Washington since  the  Revolution,  he  served  as  the  first  governor  of
Maryland and chief judge of the state's General Court. He resigned from  the
Supreme Court for health reasons. (8) William Paterson (1745-1806),  of  New
Jersey,  served  as  associate  justice  1793-1806.  He  helped  draft   the
Judiciary Act of 1789 creating the  federal  court  system.  In  Van  Home's
Lessee v. Dorrance (1795) he established the  Court's  authority  to  strike
down as  unconstitutional  a  duly  enacted  state  law,  a  precedent  that
anticipated judicial review of federal laws. (9) Samuel  Chase  (1741-1811),
of Maryland, served as  associate  justice  1796-1811.  Irascible  and  acid
tongued, his gratuitous attacks on  President  Jefferson  in  1803  led  the
House to impeach him, but the Senate fell  four  votes  short  of  the  two-
thirds necessary for conviction. He was the only Supreme  Court  justice  to
be impeached. Speaking for a unanimous Court in Ware v.  Hilton  (1796),  he
established the supremacy of national treaties over state laws. (10)  Oliver
Ellsworth (1745-1807), of Connecticut, served as  chief  justice  1796-1800.
He was the principal architect of the Judiciary Act of  1789,  creating  the
federal court system. In United States v. La Vengeance (1796), he spoke  for
the majority in extending federal authority to all inland rivers and lakes.
    RANKING IN  1962  HISTORIANS  POLL:  Washington  ranked  second  of  31
presidents and second of 5 "great"  presidents.  He  ranked  above  Franklin
Roosevelt and below Lincoln.
    RETIREMENT: March 4, 1797-December 14, 1799. Washington,  65,  returned
to Mount Vernon to  oversee  much-needed  repairs.  He  played  host,  often
reluctantly, to an  endless  parade  of  visitors,  many  longtime  friends,
others perfect strangers there just to ogle the  former  president  and  his
family. Briefed on affairs of state by War Secretary McHenry and others,  he
maintained a keen interest in the  course  of  the  country.  With  tensions
between the United States and France threatening to erupt into  war  in  the
wake of the XYZ Affair (see "John Adams, 2d  President,"  "Administration"),
Washington was commissioned lieutenant general and  commander  in  chief  of
American forces on July 4, 1798, the only former president to  hold  such  a
post. He accepted the commission on the condition that he would take to  the
field only in case of invasion and that he  had  approval  rights  over  the
composition of the general staff. He promised the cause "all the blood  that
remains in my veins." Fortunately the undeclared "Quasi-War"  that  followed
was  limited  to  naval  encounters  and  Washington's  services  were   not
required. In his last year Washington faced a liquidity crisis:  Money  owed
him from the sale or rental of real estate was past due at a time  when  his
taxes and entertainment bills were climbing. As a result, at age 67  he  was
compelled for the first time in his life to borrow money from a bank.
    DEATH: December 14, 1799, after 10 P.M., Mount Vernon, Virginia. On the
morning of  December  12,   Washington  set  out  on  horseback  around  the
plantation. With temperatures hovering around freezing, it  began  to  snow;
this turned to sleet, then rain, and back to snow  by  the  time  Washington
returned indoors five hours later.  Still  in  his  cold,  wet  clothes,  he
tended to some correspondence and ate dinner. Next morning he awoke  with  a
sore throat, and later in the day his voice grew hoarse.  About  2  A.M.  on
December 14 he awoke suddenly with severe  chills  and  was  having  trouble
breathing and speaking. Three doctors attended  himhis  personal  physician
and longtime friend Dr. James Craik and consultants  Drs.  Gustavus  Richard
Brown and Elisha Cullen Dick. They diagnosed his condition  as  inflammatory
quinsy. The  patient  was  bled  on  four  separate  occasions,  a  standard
practice of  the  period.  Washington  tried  to  swallow  a  concoction  of
molasses, vinegar, and butter to soothe his raw throat but could not get  it
down. He was able to take a little calomel and tartar emetic and  to  inhale
vinegar  vapor,  but  his  pulse  remained  weak  throughout  the  day.  The
physicians raised blisters on his throat  and  lower  limbs  as  a  counter-
irritant and  applied  a  poultice,  but  neither  was  effective.  Finally,
Washington told his doctors to give up and about 10  P.M.  spoke  weakly  to
Tobias Lear, his fide, "I am just going. Have me decently buried and do  not
let my body be put into a vault in less than two days after I  am  dead.  Do
you  understand  me?"  "Yes,  sir,"  replied  Lear.  "'Tis   well,"12   said
Washington. These were his last words. Soon thereafter he died while  taking
his own pulse. After a lock of his hair was removed,  his  body  was  placed
in a mahogany coffin bearing the  Latin inscriptions Surge Ad  Judicium  and
Gloria Deo. The funeral services, con ducted by the  Reverend  Thomas  Davis
on December 18, were far from the simple ceremony Washington had  requested.
A procession of mourners filed between two long rows  of  soldiers,  a  band
played appropriate music, guns boomed in tribute from  a  ship  anchored  in
the Potomac, and the Masonic order  to  which  Washington  belonged  sent  a
large contingent. His remains were deposited in the  family  tomb  at  Mount
Vernon. In his last will and testament, a 42-page document executed  in  his
own hand in July 1799, Washington  provided  his  widow  with  the  use  and
benefit of the estate, valued at more than $500,000,  during  her  lifetime.
He freed his personal servant William with a $30  annuity  and  ordered  the
rest of the slaves freed upon Martha's death. He left his stock in the  Bank
of Alexandria to a school for poor and orphaned  children  and  ordered  his
stock in the Potomac Company to be applied  toward  the  construction  of  a
national university. He forgave the debts of  his  brother  Samuel's  family
and that of his brother-in-law Bartholomew Dandridge. He also  ensured  that
his aide Tobias Lear would live rent free for  the  rest  of  his  life.  To
nephew Bushrod Washington he left Mount Vernon,  his  personal  papers,  and
his library. His grandchildren  Mrs.  Nellie  Lewis  and  George  Washington
Parke Custis received large, choice tracts. In sundry  other  bequests,  the
gold-headed cane Benjamin  Franklin  had  given  him  went  to  his  brother
Charles, his writing desk and chair to Doctor  Craik,  steel  pistols  taken
from the British during the Revolution to Lafayette, and a sword to each  of
five nephews on the assurance that they will never "unsheath  them  for  the
purpose of shedding blood except it be for self-defence, or  in  defence  of
their country  and  its  rights,  and  in  the  latter  case  to  keep  them
unsheathed,  and  prefer  falling  with  them  in  their   hands,   to   the
relinquishment thereof."
    WASHINGTON PRAISED: "A gentleman  whose  skill  and  experience  as  an
officer, whose independent fortune, great talents  and  excellent  universal
character would command  the  approbation  of  all  America  and  unite  the
cordial exertions of all the Colonies better than any other  person  in  the
union."John Adams, in proposing Washington as commander  in  chief  of  the
Continental army, 1775.
    "You would, at this side of  the  sea  [in  Europe],  enjoy  the  great
reputation you have acquired, pure and free from those  little  shades  that
the jealousy and envy of a man's  countrymen  and  contemporaries  are  ever
endeavouring to cast over living merit. Here  you  would  know,  and  enjoy,
what posterity will say of Washington. For a thousand  leagues  have  nearly
the same effect with a thousand years. The feeble voice of those  grovelling
passions cannot extend so far either in  time  or  distance.  At  present  I
enjoy that pleasure for you, as I frequently hear the old generals  of  this
martial country [France] (who study the maps of America and mark  upon  them
all your operations) speak with sincere approbation and  great  applause  of
your conduct; and join in giving you the character of one  of  the  greatest
captains of the age."  Benjamin Franklin, 1780.
    "More than any other individual, and as much as to one  individual  was
possible, has he contributed to found this, our wide spreading  empire,  and
to give to the Western World independence and freedom."John Marshall.
    "To the memory of the Man, first in war, first in peace, and  first  in
the hearts of his countrymen."Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, 1799.
    WASHINGTON CRITICIZED: "If ever a nation was debauched by a man, the
    American nation has been debauched by Washington. If ever a nation was
    deceived by a man, the American nation has been deceived by Washington.
Let his conduct, then, be an example to future ages; let it serve  to  be  a
warning that no man may be an idol."17Philadelphia Atirora, 1796.
    "An Anglican monarchical, and aristocratical party has sprung up, whose
avowed object is to draw over us the substance, as they  have  already  done
the forms, of the British government. ... It would give you a fever  were  I
to name to you the apostates who have gone over to these heresies,  men  who
were Samsons in the field and Solomons in the  council,  but  who  have  had
their heads shorn by the harlot England."Thomas Jefferson, in the  wake  of
Washington's support of Jay's Treaty, 1796.
    "You commenced your Presidential career by encouraging  and  swallowing
the grossest adulation, and you  travelled  America  from  one  end  to  the
other, to put yourself in  the  way  of  receiving  it.  You  have  as  many
addresses in your chest as  James  the  II.  ...  The  character  which  Mr.
Washington  has  attempted  to  act  in  this  world,  is  a  sort  of  non-
describable, camelion-colored thing, called prudence. It is, in many  cases,
a substitute for principle, and is so nearly allied to  hypocrisy,  that  it
easily slides into it. ... And  as  to  you,  sir,  treacherous  to  private
friendship (for so you have been to me, and that in the day of  danger)  and
a hypocrite in public life, the world will be puzzled to decide whether  you
are an apostate or an imposter, whether you have abandoned good  principles,
or  whether  you  ever  had  any?"Thomas  Paine,  in  an  open  letter   to
Washington, 1796.
    WASHINGTON QUOTES: "It is easy to make acquaintances but very difficult
to shake them off, however irksome and unprofitable they are found after  we
have once committed ourselves to them. ... Be courteous to all but  intimate
with few, and let those  few  be  well  tried  before  you  give  them  your
confidence; true friendship is a plant of slow growth."
    "As the  sword  was  the  last  resort  for  the  preservation  of  our
liberties, so it ought  to  be  the  first  to  be  laid  aside  when  those
liberties are firmly established."1776
    "Precedents are dangerous things; let the reins of government  then  be
braced and held with a steady hand, and every violation of the  Constitution
be reprehended: if defective let it be  amended,  but  not  suffered  to  be
trampled upon whilst it has an existence."1786
    "[Political  parties]  serve  to  organize  faction,  to  give  it   an
artificial and extraordinary force to put, in the  place  of  the  delegated
will of the Nation, the will of a  party;  often  a  small  but  artful  and
enterprizing minority of the  community;  and  according  to  the  alternate
triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the  mirror
of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction,  rather  than  the
organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested  by  common  counsels,  and
modified by mutual interests. However combinations or  associations  of  the
above description may now and then answer Popular ends, they are  likely  in
the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by  which  cunning,
ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the Power of  the
People and to usurp for  themselves  the  reins  of  Government;  destroying
afterwards  the  very   engines   which   have   lifted   them   to   unjust
dominion."1796 (Farewell Address).'
                           BOOKS ABOUT WASHINGTON.

    1. Childrens Britanica Presidents of the USA
    2. The complete book of U.S. Presidents
    3. Americans First President. Focus on the U.S.A.
    4. George Washington: Man and Monument. (Cunliffe, Marcus)
    5. James T. Flexner. George Washington: A Biography.