񿼿  櫽
..櫽 ӫߴ  ߬ 16 Ӵ 1853   Ѽ ԡ
߬ ԫӿ Ѵ ᮽ 櫽(1820-1879)   ѡ
ūѡ 񿼿ӫ.
ɫ Ե ӿѪ  5-6 ѡ    ѽ ߬
,  ի ߽߫.Oѵ  ӫ񫽪  ӫ 
ᡴߴ Ҭ, ٽ Ҫ Ӵ߬  ӫ߫ӫ. Ѽ   ٽ
ӫ  ѬѼٮ ԫӿ.
 ūѡ 񿼿ӫ ٽ  Ҭῡ߬-߬ Ѽ  ѽ 
Ѽ ӫ ѽ ߽ѽ Ѽԫ Ѭ 欫ӫ .. 
 櫽 . ҡ߽ Կ߬ү .
   ᡫ ᡡ  ߻߫ ӿԡ ի󡫼
Կ,߫ ٽ ´޿ ߽  ẫ᡿   
  ߫߬ ѴѽԿ.
 ẫ᡿    5 ߬߬ ế     1869
  ԫ   ѡѼ ѡ  竽ү ߬ ế.
ެ  ӫһ὿ -ߡ ߬ ޿ ѽѮ  ѽٮ
߬ѻԿ   ὿ ӿԿ ӫ߫.
    ẫ᡿    꼻ԫ߬ ߬߬
ҡ߿(1869-1873) ߴ  ѼԿ߬ ҽ  ѡѼ
񫻫ѽ ,߽ 2  ѽ  ԫӿ-߫߬
ҽ. 1874  ӫ߽ ߽ѽѼ  ߽  ի󡫮
Ѽ.ū߽ ᡿ ҡ߿  ᡿ ѡ ߫.
ūԫ  ԫӿ ߫, 1875   ӿ߬ Һ 
߫  ڿ ԫ߬ү ᵿ  ỿ "ӿԿ ѡ
"  ԫ ѡ  Ѭԫ߬ ѴѽԿ.   Ѭ ӫ
ѫԿ ,ӫ񡿬  󿺿-ѽѬ ᡡ ߬ᡡټ իټ
.
   1881  1893 ᡿ߴ ѬԿ ὿   ԫ᡿ ԫӿ
߫. 1881-1883   3   ἴ ԫ߬.ū߽
ᬫ    1886   ټ ԫѬ߬ ѴѽѼ ѻ߬
ӫ߼ Ѭߴ ԫ.  󽴯ߴ   
ѽ Ѽ.ƫ  ߼ӿ ӫѼ ߽󴡫 
.ū߽  ᡿ߴ ԫ ӫἿ ߫,
 1889-"߫  ӿӫ",1892-1894-"߽ ",1887-"ūԿ 
", 1897-1899-ѫԿ߬ ߫.
   ū߽ ѡ Ӭټ ѫӿ ᡿ߴ ѫԿ߬ ߫Ѯ,
  ի ᬫ ߫ү Ժ  ѫԿ߬   
 ߴ ӫѡ. ߬ Ѫ ѺѼѡ 
Ѭ,Ѭ   ԫ߬ Ѯ.
 ߽񡿮    ӿ   ,󽴴 Կ ѡ
Կӿ.
  ߴ ӫ,߬  ߽.ԫ ٽ Ѻ񫼡ٮ
ѽѬ,Ѻ Ѽ  Ѻ ӫѡ .ġ  իߴ  .
  ὿ իߴ  ߻ټ ,  ټ.
   -ѡ ѵ 31  1900    48  
ӿ߬ӫ,Ѻ Ѭ  ԫѡ ᡿.ūիӫѡ 
Ѽ .
  ġ  Ὣ ߿ ߽ ,ѽ ӫ ߫߬ ҽӫ 
 Ӵѡ  ի󡫮 .
  ,  ӫ ѡ ӫ    Ѽ   ߽
ѡ.񿼿 櫽  ߻  ӫѽ ԫڿ 
. ԫӿ  ѵ  񿼿    1,ٽ
Ѫ,ѽѽѡ  ѡ  ޿ ѽټ Ἷ ,߽Ҫ
Ѭԫӫ ҡ߿  ٽ ѡټ  ߫,   ի 
 ,  ߬ѡ  Ӭ.ġ ٽ ѻѽѼ ԫӿ 
쿬 ǽѬӫ,١ ǽѬ 2. ޿ ١ 󫽫 (1849-
1903)  ӫ  ԫӿ߬ Ѽ, ūѡ  Կտ  
߬,  ´(1862-1903),޿  12 Ѯ ٽ ԫӿ 
,ѻѽѼ  ế, Žԫ.١ ´
 櫽 -Ѯ ᮽ (1885-1942)ٽ Ѯ޿
߿󫽿ԫ  ѡ  񿼿  ´ 櫽.
񿼿 櫽 ߽ ᡿ ҡ߿    Ѭ 
߫. 1877 ѡ    ᡴԿ ߫Ѯ   
᡿,ڿ ԫ߬ү ᵿ  ߫.ӿѺ  ߬ 
ᬫߴ  ƫԫ ..   ѼѮ ӫ ..Ѯ ԫ 
ѡ ١  Ѯ   ߽.ġ ߻  Ѯ Ѫ
 ,Ѯ 29, Ѽ 24.ġ ҪѼ    3 Ѯ.櫽 իѽ  Ѯ
ѡߴ ,    ԫ ٮ  ,իԴ  ѽ  
ٽ ߡټ.ડ   ߫᡿  ߯   ѽ Ѭߡ
ԡѡ   ,Ԭߴ ѡߴ ԫ  1887.
      ԫ  ٽ  .
Ҫ   ٽ   ῡѡ,  
٬ѡ.￵ ѡѡ-߬,  ޿ Ѽ ߿
Ἷ,Ѻѡټ,ԫڿ   ڿ,߼Ӵڿ  .
 Ѵ  񽿡 ԫ Ҭ,ҡ  Ӽ  󽴯ڿ
󫽫  .   ӫѡ  Ἣ.ѡ ߿
.߿   ѫ٬ѡ իѡټ ѡѼ,  
, ӿԿ߬ ѡ.
ѡ  ޡ ի ߫  ѽټ .
ߴ  ԫ Ὣ,Ѻӡٮ  ᡡٮ. Խ὿ ѻ 
߫ѽ ԡѡ  .  ߼ ٽ   ߫Ӫ᡿, ߼
櫬. Կ Խߴ .
   ߫߬ ӫѡ ٽ ὿Կ   ԽὫ:
-὿Կ߬ ѬԿ
-ѡ ӫѡ ߫, ߫ ᬵ.ӫ ߡ
 ѽ ᡿  ѽ ѽѬ.
-ԫ߬ ѫӿ ԡ߿ѽ ߽ Ӭ󡫮  ߬ Կ 
 ѽ.
   ѡ ɫ߿  Ѽ ӫ  ӫ ӫ ɫ߿ ٽ ߽Ѯ
ԫ 櫽.ԫ ߫ .