Media in the world



    Mass media is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio,  motion
pictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. It refers to  much
more  than  the  journalistic  aspects  of  the   instruments   of   popular
communication. The mass media often function as the locus of social  control
and the source of popular  culture.  They  help  create  historical  events,
teach values,  and  by  virtue  of  the  huge  commercial  enterprises  they
represent, affect the viability of free societies.
    There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers,  news  services,
periodicals, radio and television. Radio and television perform  information
only briefly, but quickly. Newspapers  include  full  reports  on  different
topics. News agencies provide them with the latest information.

                         NEWS AGENCIES
    News  agencies  are  local,  national,  international,   or   technical
organizations that gathers and distributes news, selling theyr  services  to
newspapers, periodicals, and broadcasters; reports  are  also  available  as
part of some on-line computer services. The major news organizations in  the
U.S. are: the Associated Press (AP),  founded  in  1892  as  the  Associated
Press of Illinois, which adopted its present name in 1900; the United  Press
Association, called the United Press (UP), founded in 1892, which became  an
affiliate of the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain; and the International  News
Service (INS), founded by W.R. Hearst in 1906; in 1958 INS was  merged  with
UP, forming United  Press  International  (UPI).  Two  major  European  news
agencies are the Reuter Telegram Company of  London,  founded  in  1851  and
known simply as Reuters;  and  Agence  France-Presse,  founded  in  1835  as
Agence Havas of Paris. Some countries have government-owned and  -controlled
agencies. News agencies transmit copy through  the  use  of  the  telegraph,
telephone wires, underwater  cables,  and  communications  satellites.  Many
offer their clients photographs, news analyses, and special features.

                              NEWSPAPER
    Newspaper is  a  publication  issued  periodically,  usually  daily  or
weekly, to present information about current events. The Roman  Acta  diurna
(c.59  B.C.),  posted  daily  in  public  places,  was  the  first  recorded
newspaper . The invention and spread of printing in the 15th cent.  was  the
major factor in the early development of  the  newspaper.  The  first  daily
paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702). English newspapers  began  to
reach the masses in the 19th cent. Important  English  newspapers  of  today
are The Times of London (founded in 1785) and the Manchester  Guardian.  One
of the oldest continental newspapers, Avisa Relation oder Zeitung,  appeared
in Germany in 1609; the Nieuwe Tijdingen was published in Antwerp  in  1616;
and the first French newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631.  Important
newspapers  of  the  world  today  include  Frankfurter  Allgemeine  Zeitung
(Germany), Figaro (France),  Osservatore  romano  (Vatican),  Asahi  Shimbun
(Japan), and the Times of India (Delhi). The first newspaper  to  appear  in
the American colonies  was  a  newssheet,  Publick  Occurrences,  which  was
issued in Boston in 1690. During the 19th cent. many famous U.S.  newspapers
appeared: the New York Evening  Post  (1801);  the  New  York  Sun,  founded
(1833) by B.H. Day; the New York Herald  (1835);  and  the  New  York  Times
(1851. Other important American newspapers  are  the  Washington  Post;  Los
Angeles Times; Christian Science  Monitor  (Boston);  Atlanta  Constitution;
Chicago Tribune; USA Today,  a  national  paper;  and  Wall  Street  Journal
(N.Y.C.), which in 1980 became the best-selling daily newspaper in the  U.S.
In the 20th cent. great newspaper empires were built in England and  in  the
U.S.  By  1980  the  Australian  magnate  Rupert  Murdoch   was   publishing
newspapers in Australia, Britain, and the U.S. Since the  invention  of  the
telegraph, which facilitated the rapid gathering of  news,  the  great  news
agencies have sold  their  services  to  many  newspapers.  Improvements  in
typesetting and printing (especially the web press) have made  possible  the
publication  of  huge  editions  at  great  speed.  During  the  1970s  such
technological   developments   as   photocomposition   and   the   use    of
communications satellites to deliver  news  and  photographs  revolutionized
the newspaper industry. The advent of computer technology has  allowed  many
newspapers  to  offer  information  through  commercial   on-line   computer
services. but they are able to  spare  more  attention  and  space  to  each
problem. The newspaper articles give much  more  information  about  events.
That is is the main advantage of newspapers.
    Newspapers cover more stories than any ather news media does. They also
cover stories in great detail. However, the newspapers  present  information
later then radio or TV. The great advantage of newspapers over radio and  TV
is that they can report stories  in  depth.  Readers  can  skip  items  that
doesn’t interest them. Newspapers  also  can  print  certain  material  that
appeals to only a small percentage of readers.

                            PERIODICALS
    Periodicals are publications issued regularly, distinguished  from  the
newspaper in format, in that its pages are smaller and  usually  bound,  and
in that it is published weekly, monthly, or quarterly,  rather  than  daily.
Periodicals range from  technical  and  scholarly  journals  to  illustrated
magazines for mass circulation. The French Journal des  scavans  (1665-1791)
is considered the first periodical, whereas the English monthly  Gentleman's
Magazine (1731-1868) was the first to use the word magazine in the sense  of
a periodical for entertainment. Famous American periodicals include  Godey's
Lady's Book (1830-98), edited by Sarah J. Hale and famous  for  its  colored
fashion prints; the Atlantic Monthly (1857-) and Harper's Magazine  (1850-),
both noted for serious essays and fiction; the  extremely  popular  Saturday
Evening  Post  (1821-1971)  and  Ladies'  Home  Journal  (1883-);  McClure's
Magazine (1893-1928), which published many articles by the  Muckrakers;  and
The New Yorker  (1925-)  known  for  its  urbane  humor  and  high  literary
standards. Specialized magazines include the  news  magazines  Time  (1923-)
and Newsweek (1933-); the National Geographic Magazine (1888-),  devoted  to
natural history and anthropology; Ebony (1946-), a picture  weekly  directed
toward African Americans; Playboy (1953-) and other periodicals  devoted  to
sex  and  sexuality;  Ms.  (1972-),  a  forum  for  the  women's  liberation
movement;  and  the  zany,  satirical  National  Lampoon  (1970-).  Computer
advances have made possible the delivery of magazine  articles  through  on-
line services and have begun to spawn entirely electronic periodicals,  such
as The Online Journal of Current Critical  Trials  (1992-),  a  professional
medical journal.

                                  RADIO
    The first regularly scheduled radio broadcasts in  the  U.S.  began  in
1920. The  sale  of  advertising  began  in  1922,  establishing  commercial
broadcasting as an industry. A coast-to-coast hookup began  early  in  1924,
and  expansion  of  both  audience  and  transmission  facilities  continued
rapidly. Radio is generally the first of news media to report a local  story
or a news service bulletin. A radio  announcer  can  interrupt  a  programme
with a news flash as soon as the report  comes  in.  Most  stations  present
regular news bulletins every half-hour or hour.The national radio  broadcast
 major news events. However, most radio news bulletins  do  not  report  the
news in detail. In a five minute broadcast the stories average less then  30
seconds each. Radio also provide weather forecasts and traffic  information.


                            TELEVISION
    Experiments in broadcasting television began  in  the  1920s  but  were
interrupted by  World  War  II.  By  1992  the  U.S.  had  1,505  television
stations, and cable television systems in the U.S. served  over  56  million
households. Television signals are  also  now  transmitted  from  satellites
direct to household satellite dishes.
    Television is the main source of news for many  households  around  the
world. TV does what none of the other media can: it  brings  the  sight  and
sounds of some important news events by  means  of  filmed,  taped  or  live
reports. Like  regular  radio  news  bulletins,  daily  TV  news  programmes
provide only brief accounts  of  relatively  new  stories.  But  the  visual
aspect of TV news story can often help  viewers  understand  the  story.  In
addition to daily news  reports,  television  covers  special  news  events.
Coverage of such an event may  replace  many  hours  of  regular  TV  shows.
Television also broadcasts in-depth programmes that help explain a story  or
 subject. Such programmes, which run from  half  an  hour  to  three  hours,
include docummentaries and interview  programmes.  Most  docummentaries  are
filmed or taped. They may perform such subjects as  crime,  foreign  policy,
or race relations. Interview programmes, which are usually  broadcast  live,
may consist of a panel of journalists who ask questions of  a  major  figure
in the news.

    The importance of mass media and journalism has  greatly  increased  in
recent years. In democratic countries, people depend on the news  media  for
the fair and truthful reporting of current  events.  Freedom  of  the  press
encourages the exchange of ideas  among  citizens.  In  governmet-controlled
countries, however, the news media serve as an instrument of the state.  The
struggle against censorship began in England in the 16th-17th cent.  In  the
American colonies it began in 1734. Only 20% of the world’s people  live  in
countries that have a free press.  But  in  government-controlled  countries
journalists can still broadcast or write only what national  leaders  allow.
Media forms public opinion now. A lot of politicians strive to possess  mass
media. Media carries great possibilities for society, but they are not  only
good ones. Nobody should forget, that media- is the fourth power.