Английский (топики/темы): Russia (1)
Imagine you are telling your foreign guest about Russia. What main points (geography, political system, economy, culture) would you touch upon ?
The first thing I am going to tell my foreign visitor about is the geography and climate of Russia, as the geographical position and climate of a country influence the country's economy; the second reason is that they influence lifestyles and the health of its people, as well as the national character. The Russian Federation, or Russia is the largest country in the world. Its vast territory lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. The country is washed by three oceans (the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific) and twelve seas (the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and others). Russia borders on many countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania in the north, China, Mongolia, North Korea and others in the south-east, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine in the west, and others. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range. The Caucasus contain Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,633 m. The more central Ural Mountains, a north-south range that forms the primary divide between Europe and Asia, are also notable. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes in the country. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dnieper and the Western Dvina. In Asia, important rivers are the Ob, Yrtysh, Yenisei, Angara, Lena, Amur and Kolyma. The largest lakes are Baikal, Ladoga and Onega. Baikal is the deepest fresh-water lake in the world and its water is the purest on Earth. The climate of Russia is varied, from arctic and subarctic in the north, continental in the centre, to subtropical in the south.
The Russian Federation is extremely rich in natural and mineral resources. It has deposits of oil, gas, iron, gold, non-ferrous metals and many other minerals.
The second thing I am going to speak about is Russia's economy as I believe economy is a foundation of any country's life.
The economy of Russia is going through a transitional period from the centrally planned socialist economy to a market economy. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 the greater part of industries were privatized, agriculture and land underwent partial privatization later and are still undergoing it. After the crisis of 1997 and the depreciation of the rouble followed by sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population, Russia's economy faced recession. The economy started recovering in 1999, partially because of high export prices on oil and gas which Russia is rich in. Russia is still heavily dependent on export of oil, gas and timber, while its industrial and farming sectors are still weak as compared with those of the developed countries, but the rate of economic growth of the country is very high. If the rate is the same within a period of several years, Russia will be the second largest European economy after Germany.
The third point I am going to touch upon is Russia's political system.
The current population of Russia is about 143 million people. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with a population of about 11 million people.
Russia is a
parliamentary republic. Head of State in the country is
President, directly elected for a four-year term, who has
considerable executive power and is head of the executive branch
of the government. The government consists of three branches:
legislative (the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Federation
Council and the State Duma), executive (the government, or the
Cabinet of Ministers) and judicial (the system of courts,
including the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other
courts). The national flag of Russia is a white-blue-and-red
banner. The national language of the Russian Federation is
Russian. The Orthodox Church is the dominant religion in Russia.
Russian culture abounds in names which are famous all over the world. Actually, there is no field in science or arts where Russia failed to contribute to the world's intellectual and artistic treasure-houses, (see 'Outstanding People')
following sentences into English.
geographical position and climate are believed to influence the
country's economy, lifestyles and the national character.
Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык.
Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part
one. English examination topics. Forms 9/11.
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9 ГДЗ - англ. яз.
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