Английский (топики/темы): The United States of America

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It is called the United States, the US, the USA, the States, America. The USA occupies the southern part of Northern America, Alaska in the north and some islands, including the Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is over nine and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Mexico in the south and Canada in the North. It has sea border with Russia, too. The western coast of the country is washed by the Pacific Ocean, and its eastern coast — by the Atlantic Ocean.

The USA comprises 50 states and one federal district, the District of Columbia, and has several territories. The capital of the country is Washington, D. C, situated in the district of Columbia. The population of the country is about 250 million people who live mostly in cities and towns. The population of Washington is about 3 million people. The USA is a very large country and has different climatic regions. The coldest regions are in the north and north-east of the country. The climate of the south of the USA is subtropical, Alaska has arctic climate. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast because of the warm winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico. The USA is a state of rivers and lakes. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the deepest and the largest in the USA. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.

The USA is rich in natural and mineral resources. It produces copper, iron ore and coal. It is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The most important manufacturing industries of the USA produce planes, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments and paper. The USA became the world leading country in the 19th century.

The USA is a presidential republic. The highest legislative body of the country is the Congress. It consists of two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state elects two senators for four years. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the USA for 9 years, and live in the state he represents. The job of the Congress is to make laws, declare war, impeach the President, approve the justices that the President appoints to the Supreme Court.

The executive branch of the government is the President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The President is elected every four years. He must be at least 35 years old, born in the USA, a citizen of the country for 14 years, and be a civilian. The President can sign or veto a bill, ask the Congress to declare war, appoint justices to the Supreme Court.

The judicial branch of the government is the Supreme court. Its job is to enforce laws. The Supreme Court can decide if the law is constitutional or not. The three branches work together to protect the Constitution and the rights of people.

Translate the following sentences into English.
1. США занимает южную часть Северной Америки, Аляску и ряд островов, имеет морскую границу с Россией и граничит с Мексикой и Канадой.
2. США включает 50 штатов и один федеральный округ, округ Колумбию, где расположен Вашингтон.
3. Население США — около 250 миллионов, страна расположена в различных климатических поясах.
4. США богаты природными ресурсами и полезными ископаемыми и производят медь, железную руду и уголь.
5. Это высокоразвитая промышленная и сельскохозяйственная страна, отрасли ее промышленности производят машины, самолеты, текстиль, телевизоры, вооружения и бумагу.
6. США — президентская республика, ее высший законодательный орган — Конгресс, который состоит из двух частей: палаты представителей и сената.
7. Конгресс создает законы, объявляет войну, объявляет импичмент президенту, утверждает судей, которых президент назначает в Верховный суд.
8. Высшая исполнительная власть — это президент и кабинет министров.
9. Высшая судебная власть — это Верховный суд, который проводит в жизнь законы и решает, является ли закон конституционным.

1. The USA occupies the southern part of North America, Alaska and some islands, it has sea border with Russia and borders on Mexico and Canada.
2. The USA comprises 50 states and one federal district, the District of Columbia where Washington is situated.
3. The US has a population of about 250 million people, the country is situated in different climatic regions.
4. The USA is rich in natural and mineral resources and produces copper, iron ore and coal.
5. It is a highly developed industrial and agrarian country with its manufacturing industries producing planes, cars, textiles, TV sets, armaments and paper,
6. The USA is a presidential republic, its highest legislative body is the Congress consisting of two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
7. Congress makes laws, declares war, impeaches the President, approves the justices that President appoints to the Supreme Court.
8. The executive branch of the government is the President and the Cabinet of Ministers.
9. The judicial branch of the government is the Supreme Court which enforces laws and decides if the law is constitutional or not.

Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part two. Additional topics.

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