Английский (топики/темы): Peter I the Great
Peter I, or Peter the Great (1672-1725), was one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history. He was at first a joint ruler with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V, and his sister, Sophia. In 1696 he became a sole ruler. Peter I was Tsar of Russia and became Emperor in 1721. As a child, he loved military games and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. He was first married at the age of 17.
Peter I is famous for carrying out a policy of 'westernization' and drawing Russia further to the East that transformed Russia into a major European power. Having travelled much in Western Europe, Peter tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia. He introduced western technology and completely changed the Russian government, increasing the power of the monarch and reducing the power of the boyars and the church. He reorganized Russian army along Western lines.
He also transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, building the new capital to the pattern o/European cities.
In foreign policy, Peter dreamt of making Russia a maritime power. To get access to the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and the Baltic, he waged wars with the Ottoman Empire (1695—1696), the Great Northern War with Sweden (1700-1721), and a war with Persia (1722-1723). He managed to get the shores of the Baltic and the Caspian Sea.
In his day, Peter
I was regarded as a strong and brutal ruler. He faced much
opposition to his reforms, but suppressed any and all rebellion
against his power. The rebellion of streltsy, the old Russian
army, took place in 1698 and was headed by his half-sister
Sophia. The greatest civilian uprising of Peter's reign, the
Bulavin Rebellion (1707—1709) started as a Cossack war. Both
rebellions aimed at overthrowing Peter and were followed by
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Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык.
Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part
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