Английский (топики/темы): George Washington

George Washington, the first American president, was born in 1732 in Westmoreland County. He trained as a surveyor, and at the age of 20 he was appointed adjutant in the militia. For the next three years, he fought in the wars against the French and Indians. In 1759, he resigned from the militia, married and settled down as a gentleman farmer at Mount Vernon. As a militiaman, Washington had been exposed to the arrogance of the British officers, and his experience as a planter with British commercial restrictions increased his anti-British sentiment. He became prominent in organizing resistance. A delegate to the Continental Congress, Washington was selected as commander in chief of the Continental Army in 1775. He was in charge of inexperienced and badly equipped army and had little or no support of the Congress. That is why he chose the policy of wearing the British troops down by harassing tactics. His able generalship and the French alliance brought the war to a conclusion. In October 1781 the British army surrendered.

The chaotic years under the Articles of Confederation led Washington to return to public life in the hope of promoting the formation of a strong central government. He presided over the Constitutional Convention and yielded to the universal demand that he serve as first president.

He was inaugurated on April 30,1789, in New York, the first national capital. In office, he tried to unite the nation and establish the authority of the new government at home and abroad. Washington was unanimously reelected in 1792, his second term was dominated by the Federalists. His Farewell Address on September 17, 1796 (published but never delivered) warned against 'permanent alliances' with foreign powers. He died at Mount Vernon on December 14, 1799.

Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Вашингтон учился на землемера, затем был назначен адъютантом милиционной армии, где испытал на себе высокомерие британских офицеров, затем ушел в отставку и стал фермером-землевладельцем.
2. Его антибританские настроения усилились, и он выдвинулся на первый план в организации антибританского сопротивления.
3. Он был выбран делегатом на Континентальный конгресс и избран (назначен) главнокомандующим Континентальной армии.
4. Будучи во главе неопытной и плохо оснащенной армии, он избрал политику изматывания британских войск путем применения изнуряющей тактики.
5. Его искусное руководство и союз с Францией привели к капитуляции Британской армии, и война закончилась.
6. Политика Вашингтона была направлена на формирование сильного центрального правительства.
7. Он встал во главе Конституционного конвента, уступил всеобщему требованию стать первым президентом и был торжественно введен в эту должность, а позже переизбран.
8. Он пытался объединить нацию и установить власть нового правительства.

1. Washington trained as a surveyor, then was appointed adjutant in the militia, where he was exposed to the arrogance of the British officers, then resigned from it and settled down as a gentleman farmer.
2. His anti-British sentiment increased, and he became prominent in organizing anti-British resistance.
3. He was elected a delegate to the continental congress and selected as a commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
4. Being in charge of inexperienced and badly equipped army, he chose the policy of wearing the British troops down by harassing tactics.
5. His able generalship and the French alliance resulted in surrendering of the British army, which brought the war to a conclusion.
6. George Washington's policy was aimed at promoting the formation of a strong central government.
7. He presided over the Constitutional Convention, yielded to the universal demand that he serve as first president and was inaugurated and later reelected.
8. He tried to unite the nation and establish the authority of the new government.

Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part two. Additional topics.

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