Английский (топики/темы): Joseph Turner
Turner is commonly known as 'the painter of light'. Although famous for his oils, he is also regarded as one of the founders of English watered-our landscape painting. In 2005 Turner's The Fighting Temeraire was voted Britain's 'greatest painting9 in a public poll organized by the BBC. Turner, along with John Constable, was at the forefront of English painting. Impressionists carefully studied his techniques, although they diminished the power of his paintings. In the modern art era, advocates of abstract art were also influenced by Turner.
Turner's talent was recognized early in his life: he became a full art academician at the age of 23. Financial independence allowed Turner to innovate and his later pictures were called 'fantastic puzzles.' However, Turner was still recognized as an artistic genius: Influential English art critic John Ruskin described Turner as the artist who could most 'stirringly and truthfully measure the moods of Nature.' His distinctive style of painting, in which he used watercolour technique with oil paints, created lightness, fluency, and disappearing atmospheric effects.
Turner's father, William Turner, was a wig-maker and later became a barber. His mother, a housewife, died early.
He was accepted into the Royal Academy of Art when he was only 15 years old. A watercolour of his was accepted for the Summer Exhibition of 1790 after only one year's study. He exhibited his first oil painting in 1796. Throughout the rest of his life, he regularly exhibited at the academy. His first works, such as Tintern Abbey (1795) and Venice: S. Giorgio Maggiore (1819), stayed true to the traditions of English landscape. The awesome power of nature was a consistent motif in Turner's works as seen in Hannibal Crossing the Alps (1812), Dawnafterthe Wreck (1840) and The Slave-Ship (1840) and many others.
Examples of his later style can be seen in Rain, Steam and Speed — The Great Western Railway, where the objects are barely recognizable.
Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would be used to support what he called "decayed artists'. His collection of finished paintings was bequeathed to the British nation. A prestigious annual art award, the Turner Prize, created in 1984, was named in Turner's honour.
He died in his house in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea on 19 December 1851. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, where he lies next to Sir Joshua Reynolds.
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Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык.
Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part
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