Английский (топики/темы): Joseph Turner

Turner is commonly known as 'the painter of light'. Although famous for his oils, he is also regarded as one of the founders of English watered-our landscape painting. In 2005 Turner's The Fighting Temeraire was voted Britain's 'greatest painting9 in a public poll organized by the BBC. Turner, along with John Constable, was at the forefront of English painting. Impressionists carefully studied his techniques, although they diminished the power of his paintings. In the modern art era, advocates of abstract art were also influenced by Turner.

Turner's talent was recognized early in his life: he became a full art academician at the age of 23. Financial independence allowed Turner to innovate and his later pictures were called 'fantastic puzzles.' However, Turner was still recognized as an artistic genius: Influential English art critic John Ruskin described Turner as the artist who could most 'stirringly and truthfully measure the moods of Nature.' His distinctive style of painting, in which he used watercolour technique with oil paints, created lightness, fluency, and disappearing atmospheric effects.

Turner's father, William Turner, was a wig-maker and later became a barber. His mother, a housewife, died early.

He was accepted into the Royal Academy of Art when he was only 15 years old. A watercolour of his was accepted for the Summer Exhibition of 1790 after only one year's study. He exhibited his first oil painting in 1796. Throughout the rest of his life, he regularly exhibited at the academy. His first works, such as Tintern Abbey (1795) and Venice: S. Giorgio Maggiore (1819), stayed true to the traditions of English landscape. The awesome power of nature was a consistent motif in Turner's works as seen in Hannibal Crossing the Alps (1812), Dawnafterthe Wreck (1840) and The Slave-Ship (1840) and many others.

Examples of his later style can be seen in Rain, Steam and Speed — The Great Western Railway, where the objects are barely recognizable.

Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would be used to support what he called "decayed artists'. His collection of finished paintings was bequeathed to the British nation. A prestigious annual art award, the Turner Prize, created in 1984, was named in Turner's honour.

He died in his house in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea on 19 December 1851. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, where he lies next to Sir Joshua Reynolds.

Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Тернер, один из основателей английской школы пейзажной акварели, известен как «художник света».
2. Одна из его картин была названа «величайшей картиной Британии» в результате опроса общественного мнения, проведенного Би-Би-Си.
3. Тернер занимает важнейшее место в английской живописи, он оказал влияние на сторонников абстрактного искусства, его технику внимательно изучали импрессионисты.
4. Финансовая независимость давала ему возможность экспериментировать.
5. Его признавали гениальным художником, у него был узнаваемый стиль живописи, в котором он использовал технику акварели при письме маслом.
6. Он был принят в Королевскую академию, когда ему было всего 15 лет, регулярно выставлялся в академии, оставил большое наследство после смерти и завещал свою коллекцию законченных картин британскому народу.
7. В 1984 году была учреждена престижная премия в области искусства и названа в честь Тернера.
8. Он оставался верным традициям английского пейзажа, а постоянным мотивом в его работах была ужасающая сила природы.

1. Turner is one of the founders of English watercolour landscape painting, commonly known as 'the painter of light'.
2. One of his paintings was voted Britain's 'greatest painting' in a public poll organized by the BBC.
3. Turner was at the forefront of English painting, he influenced advocates of abstract art, and his techniques were carefully studied by the impressionists.
4. Financial independence allowed him to innovate.
5. He was recognized as an artistic genius, and had a distinctive style of painting, in which he used watercolour techniques in oil painting.
6. He was accepted into the Royal Academy of Art when he was only 15, regularly exhibited at the Academy, left a large fortune when he died, and bequeathed his collection of finished paintings to the British nation.
7. A prestigious annual art award was created in 1984 and was named in Turner's honour.
8. He stayed true to the traditions of English landscape, describing the awesome power of nature being a consistent motif in Turner's works.

Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part two. Additional topics.

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