Английский (топики/темы): Jackson Pollock
Pollock's early work was influenced by the Mexican muralists David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Diego Rivera. After visiting exhibitions of Pablo Picasso and Surrealist Art, his work became more symbolic. Pollock's first solo show was held at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of this Century Gallery (in New York) in 1943.
Pollock's style changed dramatically beginning in 1947. He began painting with his (usually large) canvases placed on the floor, and developed his 'pour' technique. He used his brushes as sticks to drip paint, and the brush never touched the canvas. This was an origination of action painting. He changed the Western tradition of using an easel and brush, as well as moved away from use only of the hand and wrist — as he used his whole body to paint. Pollock was dubbed 'Jack the Dripper' due to his painting style.
This change in style and technique came from many influences. In the winter of 1947-48, Pollock published a commentary, called Possibilities, describing his new method: 'My painting does not come from the easel I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor. I need the resistance of a hard surface. On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting. This is akin to the method of the Indian sand painters of the West. When I am in my painting, I'm not aware of what I'm doing. It is only after a sort of 'get acquainted' period that I see what I have been about. I have no fear of making changes, destroying the image, etc., because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through. It is only when I lose contact with the painting that the result is a mess. Otherwise there is pure harmony, an easy give and take, and the painting comes out well/ Other influences on his 'pour4 technique include the Mexican muralists mentioned above, and also Surrealist automatism.
When the first set of these paintings was exhibited in 1948 it was a sensation and a sell out. Pollock was able to take on a larger studio building and there produced the series of 6 paintings of 1950 for which he is most renowned. Pollock was profiled in Time Magazine as 'the greatest living American artist' in 1951. His 1952 painting of Blue Poles was sold for $2 million, which was then the highest price paid for a contemporary artwork, when it was bought by the National Gallery of Australia in 1973.
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Из пособия "ЕГЭ. Английский язык.
Устные темы" Занина Е.Л. (2010, 272с.) - Part
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