Basic English grammar. Betty Azar

Second Edition; with Answer Key

2nd. ed. - Longman, 1996 - 482 с.

Basic English Grammar is a developmental skills text for students of English as a second or foreign language. Serving as both a reference and a workbook, it introduces students to the form, meaning, and usage of basic structures in English. It provides ample practice through extensive and varied written and oral exercises.

Описание: "Данное учебное пособие было издано в 1996 году, но можно с уверенностью сказать, что до сих пор это один из лучших учебников для начинающих изучать английский. В начале каждого топика прилагается грамматический материал. Великолепнейшие схемы и таблицы. После грамматической части идут упражнения с интересными забавными картинкам

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Все книги этой серии / The Azar Grammar Series

Basic English grammar. Betty Azar
Fundamentals of English Grammar. Betty Azar
Understanding and Using English Grammar. Betty Azar


CONTENTS

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION........................................................................................ ix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS................................................................................................................. x

Chapter 1 USING BE AND HAVE

1-1 NOUN + IS + NOUN: SINGULAR........................................................................... 2

1-2 NOUN + ARE + NOUN: PLURAL........................................................................... 4

1-3 PRONOUN + BE + NOUN ..................................................................................... 6

1-4 CONTRACTIONS WITH BE.................................................................................... 7

1-5 NEGATIVE WITH BE.............................................................................................. 8

1-6 BE + ADJECTIVE................................................................................................... 10

1-7 BE + A LOCATION................................................................................................ 16

1-8 SUMMARY: SENTENCE PATTERNS WITH BE................................................... 20

1-9 YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH BE............................................................................ 21

1-10 QUESTIONS WITH BE: USING WHERE.............................................................. 24

1-11 USING HAVE AND HAS....................................................................................... 26

1-12 USING MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR....................................................... 27

1-13 USING THIS AND THAT....................................................................................... 30

1-14 USING THESE AND THOSE................................................................................ 31

1-15 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WHAT AND WHO + BE........................................ 32

Chapter 2 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 1)

2-1 FORM AND BASIC MEANING OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE.................... 44

2-2 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS: ALWA YS, USUALLY, OFTEN,

SOMETIMES, SELDOM, RARELY, NEVER......................................................... 46

2-3 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS WITH BE.......................................................... 47

2-4 PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL-5;/Z/AND/S/.......................................................... 49

2-5 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -ES............................................ 51

2-6 ADDING FINAL -S/-ES TO WORDS THAT END IN -Y......................................... 51

2-7 IRREGULAR SINGULAR VERBS: HAS, DOES, GOES........................................ 52

2-8 SUMMARY: SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF -S AND -ES...................... 54

2-9 THE SLMPLE PRESENT: NEGATIVE.................................................................... 57

2-10 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: YES/NO QUESTIONS........................................................ 61

2-11 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS

WITH WHERE.......................................................................................................... 64

2-12 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS

WITH WHEN AND WHAT TIME............................................................................. 66

2-13 SUMMARY: INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH BE AND DO.............................. 67

2-14 USING ITTO TALK ABOUT TIME............................................................................ 72

2-15 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME......................................................................................... 73

2-16 USING /ГТО TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER.......................................................... 74

Chapter 3 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 2)

3-1 BE + -/NG. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE.................................................. 84

3-2 SPELLING OF-/iVG.................................................................................................... 87

3-3 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: QUESTIONS.......................................................... 89

3-4 THE SIMPLE PRESENT vs. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE.................................... 92

3-5 NONACTION VERBS NOT USED IN THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE.................... 95

3-6 SEE, LOOK AT, WATCH, HEAR, AND LISTEN TO............................................... 97

3-7 NEED AND WANT + A NOUN OR AN INFINITIVE............................................... 98

3-8 WOULD LIKE ......................................................................................................... 100

3-9 WOULD LIKE vs. LIKE........................................................................................... 101

3-10 THINK ABOUT AND THINK THAT....................................................................... 102

3-11 THERE + BE........................................................................................................... 106

3-12 THERE + BE YES/NO QUESTIONS....................................................................... 107

3-13 THERE + BE: ASKING QUESTIONS WITH HOW MANY.................................... 109

3-14 PREPOSITIONS OF LOCATION............................................................................. Ill

Chapter 4 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS

4-1 NOUNS: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS....................................................................... 127

4-2 ADJECTIVE + NOUN.............................................................................................. 129

4-3 SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS.............................................. 131

4-4 NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL....................................................................... 134

4-5 NOUNS: IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS................................................................ 139

4-6 NOUNS: COUNT AND NONCOUNT...................................................................... 141

4-7 USING AN vs. A....................................................................................................... 143

4-8 USING A/AN vs. SOME........................................................................................... 144

4-9 MEASUREMENTS WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS.................................................... 150

4-10 USING THE............................................................................................................. 156

4-11 USING 0 (NO ARTICLE) TO MAKE GENERALIZATIONS.................................... 160

4-12 USING SOME AND ANY........................................................................................ 161

4-13 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: SOMETHING, SOMEONE,

ANYTHING, ANYONE........................................................................................... 163

4-14 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: NOTHING AND NO ONE............................................ 164

Chapter 5 EXPRESSING PAST TIME

5-1 USING BE: PAST TIME....................................................................................... 171

5-2 PAST OF BE: NEGATIVE.................................................................................... 172

5-3 PAST OF DH: QUESTIONS.................................................................................. 173

5-4 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: USING -ED............................................................. 177

5-5 PAST TIME WORDS: YESTERDAУ, LAST, AND AGO..................................... 178

5-6 PRONUNCIATION OF -ED. /t/3/d/, AND /3d/....................................................... 180

5-7 SPELLING OF-ED VERBS................................................................................... 183

5-8 SPELLING OF -ED AND -ING: TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS................................. 186

5-9 THE SIMPLE PAST: IRREGULAR VERBS.......................................................... 190

5-10 THE SIMPLE PAST: NEGATIVE.......................................................................... 192

5-11 THE SIMPLE PAST! YES/NO QUESTIONS......................................................... 194

5-12 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................ 198

5-13 THE SIMPLE PAST: USING WHERE. WHEN, WHAT TIME,

AND WHY............................................................................................................ 203

5-14 QUESTIONS WITH WHAT.................................................................................. 206

5-15 QUESTIONS WITH WHO..................................................................................... 209

5-16 ASKING ABOUT THE MEANING OF A WORD................................................. 212

5-17 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................ 213

5-18 BEFORE AND AFTER IN TIME CLAUSES........................................................ 216

5-19 WHEAT IN TIME CLAUSES................................................................................ 219

Chapter 6 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME

6-1 FUTURE TIME: USING BE GOING TO............................................................... 231

6-2 WORDS DSED FOR PAST TIME AND FUTURE TIME...................................... 235

6-3 USING A COUPLE OF OR A FEW WITH AGO (PAST) AND

IN (FUTURE)....................................................................................................... 238

6-4 USING TODAY. TONIGHT, AND THIS + MORNING

AFTERNOON, EVENING, WEEK, MONTH, YEAR........................................... 239

6-5 FUTURE TIME: USING WILL.............................................................................. 242

6-6 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WILL..................................................................... 243

6-7 VERB SUMMARY: PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE......................................... 245

6-8 VERB SUMMARY: FORMS OF BE..................................................................... 246

6-9 USING И7МГ+A FORM OF DO......................................................................... 251

6-10 MAY/MIGHT vs. WILL........................................................................................ 253

6-11 MAYBE (ONE WORD) vs. MAYBE (TWO WORDS)........................................... 255

6-12 FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH BEFORE. AFTER, AND WHEN................... 258

6-13 CLAUSES WITH IF............................................................................................. 260

6-14 EXPRESSING HABITUAL PRESENT WITH ТЬМЕ CLAUSES AND

/F-CLAUSES......................................................................................................... 263

6-15 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................ 266

6-16 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................ 270

Chapter 7 EXPRESSING ABILITY

7-1 USING CAN........................................................................................................... 281

7-2 USING CAN: QUESTIONS................................................................................... 282

7-3 USING KNOW HOW TO...................................................................................... 284

7-4 USING COULD: PAST OF CAN.......................................................................... 285

7-5 USING VERY AND TOO + ADJECTIVE............................................................. 287

7-6 USING TOO MANY AND TOO MUCH + NOUN.............................................. 290

7-7 USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE......................................................... 293

7-8 USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + FOR (SOMEONE) + INFINITIVE.................... 294

7-9 USING ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH......................................................................... 295

7-10 USING ENOUGH + NOUN AND MORE + NOUN........................................... 297

7-11 USING ENOUGH + INFINITIVE........................................................................ 299

7-12 USING BE ABLE TO........................................................................................... 301

7-13 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, AND CAN I..................................... 302

7-14 POLITE QUESTIONS: COULD FOUAND WOULD YOU................................ 304

7-15 IMPERATIVE SENTENCES................................................................................. 307

7-16 USING TWO, TOO, AND TO.............................................................................. 310

7-17 MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS: AT AND IN FOR LOCATIONS.................... 311

7-18 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................. 321

Chapter 8 NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

8-1 MODIFYING NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS............................... 325

8-2 WORD ORDER OF ADJECTIVES........................................................................ 329

8-3 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ALL OF, MOST OF, SOME OF................... 334

8-4 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT..................... 336

8-5 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE OF, NONE OF..................................... 337

8-6 USING EVERY..................................................................................................... 341

8-7 POSSESSrVE NOUNS.......................................................................................... 343

8-8 POSSESSIVE: IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS................................................... 345

8-9 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: MINE, YOURS, HIS, HERS,

OURS, THEIRS.................................................................................................... 347

8-10 QUESTIONS WITH WHOSE................................................................................ 351

8-11 SUMMARY: USES OF THE APOSTROPHE........................................................ 352

8-12 SUMMARY: USES OF NOUNS............................................................................ 355

8-13 CONNECTED NOUNS: NOUN + AND/OR + NOUN....................................... 357

8-14 SUMMARY: USES OF ADJECTIVES................................................................... 360

8-15 SUMMARY: PERSONAL PRONOUNS................................................................ 363

8-16 INDIRECT OBJECTS............................................................................................. 364

8-17 INDIRECT OBJECTS: USING FOR...................................................................... 367

8-18 INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH BUY, GET, MAKE................................................. 369

8-19 INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH EXPLAIN AND INTRODUCE............................ 370

8-20 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................. 375

Chapter 9 MAKING COMPARISONS

9-1 COMPARISONS: USING THE SAME (AS), SIMILAR (TO),

AND DIFFERENT (FROM)................................................................................ 379

9-2 COMPARISONS: USING LIKE AND ALIKE.................................................... 382

9-3 THE COMPARATIVE: USING -ER AND MORE................................................ 383

9-4 USING AS... AS; USING LESS........................................................................... 389

9-5 USING BUT........................................................................................................... 393

9-6 USING VERBS AFTER BUT................................................................................ 395

9-7 THE SUPERLATIVE: USING -EST AND MOST.................................................. 398

9-8 USING ONE OF + SUPERLATP7E + PLURAL NOUN...................................... 405

9-9 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS............................................................................. 411

9-10 MAKING COMPARISONS WITH ADVERBS..................................................... 414

9-11 USING AS... AS WITH ADVERBS..................................................................... 416

Chapter 10 EXPRESSING IDEAS WITH VERBS

10-1 USING SHOULD................................................................................................. 420

10-2 USING LET'S....................................................................................................... 423

10-3 USING HAVE + INFINITIVE (HAS TO/HAVE TO).......................................... 424

10-4 USING MUST........................................................................................................ 427

10-5 MODAL AUXILIARIES......................................................................................... 430

10-6 SUMMARY CHART: MODAL AUXILIARIES AND

SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS..................................................................................... 431

10-7 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE..................... 434

10-8 USING WHILE WITH THE PAST PROGRESSIVE............................................. 438

10-9 WHILE vs. WHENJN PAST TIME CLAUSES.................................................... 438

10-10 SIMPLE PAST vs. PAST PROGRESSIVE............................................................. 440

10-11 USING HAVE BEEN (THE PRESENT PERFECT).............................................. 444

10-12 USING SINCE-CLAUSES...................................................................................... 446

10-13 FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT................................................................... 448

10-14 USING NEVER WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT............................................... 449

10-15 PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVES...................................... 450

10-16 USING EVER WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT................................................. 451

10-17 THE PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS WITH HOW LONG............................ 453

10-18 PAST PARTICIPLES OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS................................ 455

Appendix 1 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET....................................................................................... Al

Appendix 2 NUMBERS.............................................................................................................. A2

Appendix 3 DAYS OF THE WEEK AND MONTHS OF THE YEAR......................................... A3

Appendix 4 WAYS OF SAYING THE TIME............................................................................... A4

Appendix 5 IRREGULAR VERBS................................................................................................ A5

INDEX.................................................................................................................................. INDEX 1