Fundamentals of English Grammar. Betty Azar

Third Edition; with Answer Key

3rd. ed. - Longman, 2003 - 524 с.

The Third Edition of Fundamentals of English Grammar combines communicative methods with the direct teaching of grammar. While retaining its characteristic clarity and simplicity in grammar instruction, this edition is enriched by a wide variety of language-learning activities for the classroom.
Key features of the Third Edition:
Numerous real communication opportunities using the students' lives as context.
More interactive work in pairs and groups.
Error-analysis exercises in every chapter.
New exercises on form and meaning.
Open-ended tasks for both speaking and writing. · Additional passages using target structures in extended contexts.
Two Appendices, one with phrasal verbs, one with preposition combinations.
Workbook devoted solely to self-study exercises.
Student Book available with or without Answer Key.

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Все книги этой серии / The Azar Grammar Series

Basic English grammar. Betty Azar
Fundamentals of English Grammar. Betty Azar
Understanding and Using English Grammar. Betty Azar


CONTENTS

Preface to the Third Edition ........................... ,....................................................................... xiii

Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................... xv

Chapter! PRESENT TIME

I-l The simple present and the present progressive ........................................................................ 4

1-2 Forms of the simple present and the present progressive.......................................................... 4

1-3 Frequency adverbs........................................................................................................................... 9

1-4 Final -s ........................................................................................................................................... 12

1-5 Spelling of final -s/-es .................................................................................................................. L3

1-6 Non-action verbs ......................................................................................................................... 17

1-7 Present verbs: short answers to yes/no questions................................................................... 19

Chapter 2 PAST TIME

2-1 Expressing past time: the simple past ....................................................................................... 25

2-2 Forms of the simple past: regular verbs...................................................................................... 26

2-3 Forms of the simple past: be......................................................................................................... 26

2-4 Regular verbs: pronunciation of -ed endings............................................................................. 28

2-5 Spelling oi-ing and -erfforms........................................................................................................ 29

2-6 The principal parts of a verb......................................................................................................... 32

2-7 Irregular verbs: a reference list .................................................................................................. 33

2-8 The simple past and the past progressive ............................................................................... 39

2-9 Forms of the past progressive...................................................................................................... 39

2-10 Expressing past time: using time clauses..................................................................................... 48

2-11 Expressing past habit: used to ................................................................................................... 52

Chapter 3 FUTURE TIME

3-1 Expressing future time: be going to and -will............................................................................ 56

3-2 Forms with be going to.................................................................................................................. 56

3-3 Forms with -will.............................................................................................................................. 59

3-4 Sureness about the future............................................................................................................. 60

3-5 Be going to vs. will........................................................................................................................ 63

3-6 Expressing the future in time clauses and ^/-clauses ............................................................. 65

3-7 Using the present progressive to express future time.............................................................. 70

3-8 Using the simple present to express future time ..................................................................... 73

3-9 Immediate future: using be about to ......................................................................................... 74

3-10 Parallel verbs ................................................................................................................................. 76

Chapter 4 THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST PERFECT

4-1 Past participle.................................................................................................................................. 84

4-2 Forms of the present perfect......................................................................................................... 85

4-3 iMeanings of the present perfect .............................................................................................. 86

4-4 Simple past vs. present perfect .................................................................................................. 87

4-5 Using since and/or.......................................................................................................................... 95

4-6 Present perfect progressive........................................................................................................... 98

4-7 Present perfect progressive vs. present perfect...................................................................... 100

4-8 Using already, yet, still, and anymore .................................................................................. 102

4-9 Past perfect................................................................................................................................... 112

Chapter 5 ASKING QUESTIONS

5-1 Yes/no questions and short answers....................................................................................... 121

5-2 Yes/no questions and information questions ...................................................................... 123

5-3 Where, why, zuhen, and what time............................................................................................ 124

5-4 Questions with who, who(m), and what ............................................................................... 125

5-5 Spoken and written contractions with question words......................................................... 128

5-6 Using what + a form of do ........................................................................................................ 130

5-7 Using what kind of...................................................................................................................... 132

5-8 Using which ............................................................................................................................... 133

5-9 Using whose ............................................................................................................................... 135

5-10 Using how...................................................................................................................................... 138

5-11 Using how often ......................................................................................................................... 139

5-12 Using how far............................................................................................................................... 140

5-13 Length of time: it + take and how long ................................................................................ 141

5-14 More questions with how........................................................................................................... 143

5-15 Using how about and what about .......................................................................................... 149

5-16 Tag questions.............................................................................................................................. 152

Chapter 6 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS

6-1 Pronunciation of final -sl-es....................................................................................................... 157

6-2 Plural forms of nouns.................................................................................................................. 158

6-3 Subjects, verbs, and objects...................................................................................................... 159

6-4 Objects of prepositions.............................................................................................................. 161

6-5 Prepositions of time .................................................................................................................. 163

6-6 Word order: place and time........................................................................................................ 164

6-7 Subject-verb agreement ............................................................................................................ 165

6-8 Using adjectives to describe nouns ........................................................................................ 166

6-9 Using nouns as adjectives......................................................................................................... 168

6-10 Personal pronouns: subjects and objects................................................................................. 171

6-11 Possessive nouns........................................................................................................................ 173

6-12 Possessive pronouns and adjectives....................................................................................... 176

6-13 Reflexive pronouns...................................................................................................................... 178

6-14 Singular forms of other: another vs. the other....................................................................... 181

6-15 Plural forms of other: other(s) vs. the other(s) ................................................................... 183

6-16 Summary of forms of other......................................................................................................... 186

Chapter 7 MODAL AUXILIARIES

7-1 The form of modal auxiliaries.................................................................................................... 190

7-2 Expressing ability: can and could............................................................................................ 191

7-3 Expressing possibility: may and might

Expressing permission: may and can...................................................................................... 193

7-4 Using could to express possibility.......................................................................................... 195

7-5 Polite questions: may 1, could I, can I ................................................................................. 197

7-6 Polite questions: would you, could you, will you, can you ............................................. 199

7-7 Expressing advice: should and ought to .............................................................................. 202

7-8 Expressing advice: had better ............................................................................................... 203

7-9 Expressing necessity: have to, have got to, must .............................................................. 206

7-10 Expressing lack of necessity: do not have to

Expressing prohibition: must not............................................................................................. 207

7-11 Making logical conclusions: must ......................................................................................... 210

7-12 Giving instructions: imperative sentences ........................................................................... 213

7-13 Making suggestions: let's and why don't............................................................................... 215

7-14 Stating preferences: prefer, like ... better, -would rather.................................................... 218

Chapter 8 CONNECTING IDEAS

8-1 Connecting ideas with and....................................................................................................... 226

8-2 Connecting ideas with but and or ......................................................................................... 228

8-3 Connecting ideas with so.......................................................................................................... 230

8-4 Using auxiliary verbs after but and and.................................................................................. 233

8-5 Using and + too, so, either, neither........................................................................................ 235

8-6 Connecting ideas with because ............................................................................................. 239

8-7 Connecting ideas with even though!although ................................................................... 241

Chapter 9 COMPARISONS

9-1 Making comparisons with as ... as ........................................................................................ 248

9-2 Comparative and superlative.................................................................................................... 252

9-3 Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs ........................................ 253

9-4 Completing a comparative ...................................................................................................... 257

9-5 Modifying comparatives........................................................................................................... 258

9-6 Comparisons with less ... than and not as ... as..................................................................... 259

9-7 Unclear comparisons ............................................................................................................... 260

9-8 Using more with nouns............................................................................................................. 261

9-9 Repeating a comparative........................................................................................................... 262

9-10 Using double comparatives...................................................................................................... 263

9-11 Using superlatives...................................................................................................................... 265

9-12 Using the same, similar, different, like, alike........................................................................ 271

Chapter 10 THE PASSIVE

10-1 Active sentences and passive sentences............................................................................... 276

10-2 Form of the passive ................................................................................................................. 277

10-3 Transitive and intransitive verbs .......................................................................................... 280

10-4 Using the 6y-phrase................................................................................................................... 282

10-5 The passive forms of the present and past progressive...................................................... 287

10-6 Passive modal auxiliaries............................................................................................................. 288

10-7 Using past participles as adjectives (stative passive)........................................................... 292

10-8 Participial adjectives: -ed vs. -ing............................................................................................. 297

10-9 Get + adjective; get + past participle...................................................................................... 300

10-10 Using be used/accustomed to and get used/accustomed to................................................. 303

10-11 Used to vs. be used to.................................................................................................................. 305

10-12 Using be supposed to.................................................................................................................. 307

Chapter 11 COUNT/NONCOUNT NOUNS AND ARTICLES

11-1 A vs. an........................................................................................................................................ 312

11-2 Count and noncount nouns...................................................................................................... 313

11-3 Noncount nouns ...................................................................................................................... 314

11-4 More noncount nouns ............................................................................................................ 315

11-5 Using several, a lot of, many/much, and a few/a little......................................................... 318

11-6 Nouns that can be count or noncount.................................................................................... 322

11-7 Using units of measure with noncount nouns ..................................................................... 324

11-8 Guidelines for article usage....................................................................................................... 326

11-9 Using the or 0 with names......................................................................................................... 338

11-10 Capitalization............................................................................................................................... 339

Chapter 12 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

12-1 Adjective clauses: introduction ............................................................................................ 343

12-2 Using who and whom in adjective clauses............................................................................. 344

12-3 Using -who, u}ho(m), and that in adjective clauses .......................................................... 347

12-4 Using -which and that in adjective clauses ......................................................................... 348

12-5 Singular and plural verbs in adjective clauses .................................................................... 354

12-6 Using prepositions in adjective clauses .............................................................................. 355

12-7 Using whose in adjective clauses ......................................................................................... 359

Chapter 13 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

13-1 Verb + gerund.............................................................................................................................. 368

13-2 Go + -ing....................................................................................................................................... 372

13-3 Verb + infinitive............................................................................................................................ 373

13-4 Verb + gerund or infinitive.......................................................................................................... 374

13-5 Preposition + gerund.................................................................................................................. 381

13-6 Using by and with to express how something is done........................................................... 384

13-7 Using gerunds as subjects; using it + infinitive.................................................................... 387

13-8 It + infinitive: using/or (someone)........................................................................................... 388

13-9 Expressing purpose with in order to and for.......................................................................... 391

13-J0 Using infinitives with too and enough..................................................................................... 394

Chapter 14 NOUN CLAUSES

14-1 Noun clauses: introduction....................................................................................................... 403

14-2 Noun clauses that begin with a question word..................................................................... 404

14-3 Noun clauses with -who, what, -whose + be ...................................................................... 407

14-4 Noun clauses that begin with if or whether........................................................................... 409

14-5 Noun clauses that begin with that ............................................................. 414

14-6 Other uses of г/шС-clauses ..................................................................... 415

14-7 Substituting so for a (Aaf-clause in conversational responses ..................... 418

14-8 Quoted speech............................ ;............................................................ 420

14-9 Quoted speech vs. reported speech............................................................. 422

14-10 Verb forms in reported speech ................................................................. 423

14-11 Common reporting verbs: tell, ask, answer/reply......................................... 425

APPENDIX 1 PHRASAL VERBS

Al-1 Phrasal verbs: introduction........................................................................... 432

Al-2 Phrasal verbs: intransitive............................................................................ 443

Al-3 Three-word phrasal verbs............................................................................ 446

Al-4 Phrasal verbs: a reference list ................................................................... 449

APPENDIX 2 PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

A2-1 Preposition combinations: introduction ...................................................... 453

A2-2 Preposition combinations: a reference list.................................................... 463

ANSWER KEY .......................................................................................................................... 465

INDEX ................................................................................................................................. index 1