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: [1]   Word-162701.doc : 1


















-2009



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1.1

1.2. ()

1.3

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2.1

2.2

2.3



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(.. , . , . , . , A.M. ) , , ( ) , . i . (.. , A.M. , . , . , . .) . -: (), , . AM .

, - ", ', [2; 5]. () , AM . IE , -, .

AM . XX . , .

IE . Kachru, A. Pennycook, R. Bailey, . Gandi, R. Spolsky, D. Pattanayak, M. Jully, J. Cheshire; Cook, Sharp, Young, Zints, Saville-Troike, Edwards; Richards, Kersey, Clifton, Galloway, .; Michelson, Galloway, Wolfram, Witherspoon, McCarty .

IE. .. , . IE U.K. ", - .. . AM .. .

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1.1


- - , [50; 1]. , , [44; 940]. , , , [39; 159].

. , , . l, : ' i ... , , . [12; 133].

, , , . . " [ , 142].

[25; 9] : , , , . .

: , . , . , , , , .

, . , , , , . [63; 24].

; , : [25; 10].

i i , [59; 300]. ' , , i , [45; 69]. , i , (. , ) [59; 300].

(Kachru, Halverson, Verma, Mehrota Sridhar) , i . i " , [47; 275].

, , [19; 258]. , , . , : ; . , ' , , , [59; 303].

Saghal , i ( ).

. , [32; 83]. .

Kachru, , , , , " . , [42; 220-221]. , : , , , [39; 110].

Kachru, , ' , " ". , ' " , : , " [42; 207-211]. , , , . " " [ , 218].

Crystal , , i , - , - , [19; 261-262]. , " " [ , 10].

Samuel Ahulu - . , / . , , / . - , Ahulu . , , , . , . , [10; 17-19].

, , " ", - . , , . Cheshire , , , . , i [18; 7]. . [25; 148]. , . , . , . , , . , . Baker . , , , . , , . . - : , ( ) [11; 112-115].

Lambert (1967), : , [22; 181]. , - , - [27].

, . / , , . , , , , [23; 20].

"" "" . " , , '". , , , . , , . - , [22; 181].

Fasold , [25; 148]: [23; 20].

, , . , , , . . - - , [ , 21].

Le Page Tabouret-Keller (1985) ' : , '. ', , , . . , , [ , 172].

. : . L2 , " ". , , [24; 117]. , , , , ; , , , , . , , [48; 17-18]. , Gardner Lambert ', , L2 (., ), . , , , , [24; 118].

: , [62; 7].

. Fishman (1966) " " . , [ , 7].

, ( , '). , , , , , , , , . [ , 7].

' , . , , . , - [ , 8].

Pandit (1979) , . , . , Gujarati; Marathi, ; Hindustani; Kachi, , ; Hindi , . [ , 172-173].

, . : , . , [30; 172-173].

. - , , . , . , , [30; 173-174].

Ferguson 1959., ' , ' , [ , 33-35]. , , : (, ). [62; 8]. , , , , , , , , , .

1971. Fishman , , , , , [16; 64].

Carranza , , , : . , . , , , : , [ ].

, Joshua Fishman , . Fishman , , [25; 183].

, [26; 15].

- . , . , ' - [26; 19].

Fishman , , , - . , , . - - . - , , . - (, , ..) [ , 19-20]. Barker , , , [ , 22].

- - ( 1971.), Fishman, Cooper Ma ' : , , , [57;30]. Anju Saghal, : ', , [59; 299].

Gerlach [28;29] , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Bayer , , . ', ' . : , , , , , - , '. " " [14; 101].

Bonvillain , , . , , , ' [15;303]. Matthews (1908) , , - , , , .

5-7 , . , . , - [44; 11,14]. , 750 . , . . , 60 .

, , , , i : , , 350 . - . , , . .

. , , .

, ( ; , , , , , ). ; , , "׻ (, , ). , , , . .

" ֻ . " ֻ. . " , , , , . , "׻ (, i ).

(, , 1986). , , , , , . . , , .

, : . , , . , , . , , , . . , - .

, . , , , ( , : i ), , , . " , . [ , 128].

, , . , , ( " ). . , , , , , , , , . . , , . : , , .

[45; 222] : , , .

. [41; 130] ( , ): ; , ( ). - , , (. ), . , .

, : /, , , , , ( ), , , , , , , , , , , , , .

: , . , , . . ( ), [41; 136].

, , : , , . i , [14; 165].

[17; 6] , i , . . [59; 300] : i . , , , .

[39; 137], . , , , . , .

[ , 9] , : ( ) , i . , [ , 9].

[ , 132-133] , : , , . , . . , , .

, (, , , ).


1.2 ()


, , . , 884 .. . , . , , 16 , . 1600 - , 1614 , : , , , , , , . , - , .

1948 . " . . 1580 . - , . . . 1595 . - i . , . , [49; 392].

, , , 31 1600 , . - - [37; 353]. , ( 1623 .) . , . [49; 393].

, . 1818 - , . 1947 (401).

, ?

, , . , , . . , , , (402).

, - : (1612), (1939-40), (1647), (1690).

, , , ". . IV, . .

- , . . , . . 1779 , , . 1793 , ' " . , i .

, 1510 . : , (1715), (1719), (1720-31). 1830- , , . , - . . , , Minute (1835).

, , 1813 , , , , , , , , i , , , i , ... , , , , , , , , . i , , , .

, . - , 1614 . - ( ) - i : , i . . - (1772 - 1833) ( 1770 .). , - , . , . , , [38;67 - 68].

, (1773 - 1857) 1823 , i . , , " - , [12;136]. " , .

, , i , , , , , , , [38;68].

- , . - - 1765 , - [ ,21-22]. , . , [49; 406]. .

, . ; , , . [49;403].

, . , : , , . , , . i , . , . ( (1746-1823), (1754-1826), . . (1800-1859)) [39; 35].

, , " ׻ [51; 325]. , , , , - , , " , , , [12; 138]. ; , , " , i , [ ].

, , , , [ ,140]. , , ( ) [51; 325].

" " , , , , , , , , , , , ; , . ... , . , , . ; , [12; 137].

, , () (). , 15 1835 . [38; 68-69]. 7 1835 (1774-1839), . " ֻ [ , 68].

, , . , " , . , , [54; 103]. i , , . [ , 102].

, , , . , . , , , [ , 77]. , , [ , 79]. , .

, . " (1765-1947). i , , . 1857 ( , , ). , . . , [38; 69].

. , , , . , , . .

XX , , ' . , , , . , . , . , , . , ", " , "1984, " " . , . , i , . , 1913 .

3 , . , " ׻ .., ", .. " . , .

, , . , , ' . " ֻ 1891 , . , 1997 2006 . , , , , , , ' , .

1947 , , 1965 . , .


1.3


1950 " . , 18- . 15 . . : . ( ) (7,5 %), (7, 4 %), (7,2 %), (6,9 %), (5,1 %), (4,2 %), (3, 8 %), (3,8 %), (3,4 %) (, 1996: 18).

(), - , , . , . , , (, , , ) ( ).

. 180 . - : - 343 , [35].

i " , [63;26]. 14 , " i i , . " [15; 304].

900 1000 . . , . , , , [25; 22].

, 1947 , , . , " , . . , - [43; 542].

, . . , , - , [25; 24].

, , . , , . " 15 . , ; . [63; 56].

, (, 1963 - ). , -. -, (, , , 0, 0002 % , 96, 7 % ). -, , ; (), , , . , , , . -, , , , . , 15 . , . 1967 , - [25; 24]. 4- (, , , ) 8- .

1971 , 13 %. 99 % , , , , , , ( , ) [50; 70].

, , . , , : , , [63; 42-43].

. . , , , . , . , , , . " ֻ, - . , , , " , [53].

, , , . , . , [63; 42].

, , : , . i .

, , . . [65; 160], ( ). -, : " , , .

- , . . " ( , , ). , , , .

, , . ; . , " .

, , . " . . . : " , , . " , . " , . , , i, . " , "׻. , . . , , .

. i . . i [40; 7]: " ( , , ׻.

: . [ , 7]. , . , . [ , 7].

1920 , , , , . , , .

, , , , : . . (1869-1948), , , , .

, i , . 4 % ; , - 35 ( 1994 ) (, 1995:101). ( ), , [ , 8].

, , , , . , - - , , , , , ", " . . (, ), 65,64 % ; 11,79 % 5,12 % .

. -, , -, [ , 8]. , , [ , 111].

, " , , , ׻ [ , 273].

, , . , .

. , . [40; 12], 3852 , . . 1982 19144 , 18,7 % 27,8 % .

.

, , , . [ , 20] , . . i , . . , . [ ; 20].

1960 . , . , , .

, , , [64; 43]. , , i , . , , , . : " , , ( i ), , (), ( ) [13; 12].

, , , . , , , , , ( ).

, , [63; 55-64] , . , : ( ), ( " ), , ( ; , ), , ( , , : , , , , , , ), ( , , ), ( ), ( ) [ , 53 - 63].

[55; 161- 62] , , , . , , " , , - , .

" Franglais ( ), Spanglish ( ), Taglish ( ) . " : Inglish ( ). , . . , , . . " , . , , Inglish -YaleGlobal.

: , . () (), Boxwallah English, Butler English, Bearer English or Kitchen English, and Babu English. ( , , ) ' (- , ). , ... , , - , , , , , - . , , , -, , . .

- , , .

, - , . 1947 , , , .

Hinglish ( + ) Taglish ( + ). , , . Hinglish Taglish , .

- , , . , 200 , - - .

, , , , - . - .

"Outlook India( , 3 2005 .) ' , , , . - , , , ." 2008 . .

, , - - , . 15 , 80-. , , , , , .

. , , , , , , . , , , , , , , , , . .

, 50 . , , . - , ; - , , , Indian Idol Kaun Banega Crorepati.

. Hinglish, Inglish, , . , , Inglish , , . Inglish , FM . : Life ho to aise, Josh machine, Dil mange more. : Ladki ko mari line, girlfriend boli, Im fine!

, Windows. , RSS. , , , - . , - , - . 50 , . , 2010 . , , - .

Inglish , ? , ? , Franglais, - . ? , - , : Mein aaj busy hoon, kal bill doonga definitely., Voh mujhe avoid karti hai! , , , , : Hungry, kya?, Careful yaar, voh dangerous hai! , : Aaj Middle East mein peace ho gayi!, , .

, : Sleuth nabs man, Miscreants abscond, Eve-teasers get away. : ? . Inglish , , . - . - i . , Inglish .

, Inglish - , ? , , , . , , 21 . 100 , , . 19 , 20 , 21 Inglish, , ( , ).


. ()


2.1


. , " , , . : JNU karamcharis begin dharna (The Statesman, New Delhi, 12 May 1981), Marathwada band over pandal fire (The Indian Express, New Delhi, 9 Nay 1981), and 55 Jhuggis gutted (The Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 3 May 1981). : Wanted well-settled bridegroom for a Kerala fair graduate Baradwaja gotram, Astasatram girlsubset no bar. Send horoscope and details; Matrimonial proposals invited from educated, smart, well-settled, Gujarati bachelors for good-looking, decent, Gujarati Modh Ghanchi Bania girl, B.A., doing the M.A. and serving.

17 , . :

  1. (almirah, ayah, caste, peon) i (bamboo, betel, coir, copra, curry, mango).
  2. , . : anna, bungalow, cheetah, chintz, chit/chitty, dacoit, dak bungalow, jodhpurs, juggernaut, mulligatawny, pice, pukka, pundit, rupee, sahib, tussore. : achcha - , ( : achcha, achcha, Iwill go), basmati - , chapatti - , crore - 10 100 lakhs, goonda - , , jawan - , lakh - , 100000, lathi - , , masala - , paisa - , , panchayat - , samo(o)sa - , , Sri/Shri/Shree - , Srimati/Shrimati/Shreemati - .
  3. , , : dewan - , durbar - , mogul - ( - , movie mogul), sepoy - , shroff - , vakeel/vakil - , zamindar - .
  4. , , , , - : ahimsa - , ananda - , charka - , guru - () ( - , ), nirvana - , rajas - , samadhi - , sattwa/sattva - , tamas - , yoga - , yogi - .
  5. i : dining leaf - , , cousin brother - , cousin sister - , co-brother-in-law - () .

, , , , :

  1. , - , - i , : brahmihood - , , coconut paysam - , , goonda ordinance - , gramin bank - , kaccha road - , lathi charge ( ), lathi charge( ), pan/paan shop - , , , policewala - , swadeshi cloth - , tiffin box - .
  2. i : batch-mate - , , body-bath - , by-two coffee ( ) - , - , , condole - , England-returned - , , Eve-teasing - , Foreign-returned - , , , four-twenty - , ( ), head-bath - , interdine - , intermarriage - , issueless - , military hotel ( ) - , , out of station - i , outstation (cheque) - i , prepone - postpone, ration shop - , undertrial - , .
  3. , , , : dicky - , needful (Please, do the needful, Sri Patel), stepney - , thrice (I was seeing him thrice last week).
  4. : to sit on someones neck - , to stand on someones head - ; Do one thing, Sri Gupta - , , ; He was doing this thing, that thing, wasting my time - .

-. :

  1. : , : - .
  2. : - .
  3. , . - . , - - , , . - - .
  4. , , .. , , : - .

i Hinglish (Hindi+English) Tanglish (Tamil+English). , , , . Hinglish, Tanglish, Benglish (Bengali^ English) . , - ' . , , ' , , .

i . :

- "ify" i .

- , machaa, abey , , ; da, machaa .

- 3d (), ", " "What I mean is ki we should adopt this plan instead." ( .)

- 'of, "There is so much of happiness in being honest."

- "open" "close" "switch/turn on/off', "Open the air

conditioner" "Turn on the air conditioner."

- "hope", , : "We don't want rain today but I hope it will rain."

- "current went" "current came" "The power went out" "The power came back."

- "'all" "you all" "all of you",

.

- i "slow" "soft", " shall speak slower for you" ( " " will speak softly") "make the fan softer" ( " "make the fan go slower/reduce its speed").

- , , , , "No more ice-cream-fice-cream for you!", "Let's go have some chai-vai (tea, ' and stuff')." "There's lot of this fighting-witing going on in the neighbourhood." ( , .)

- "baazi"/"baaji" "-giri" , "business-baazi" "cheatmg-giri." ( , .)

- "wallah" , , "The taxi-wallah overcharged me.", "The grocery-wallah sells fresh fruit." "He's a real music-wallah: his CD selection is huge."

- maane ( ),' Yani' () 'matlab' (/), "" ("What I mean is..."), "The problem with your idea, maane, what I feel is missing, is ki it does not address the problem of overstaffing." "Your explanation, matlab, your feeble attempt at one, was sorely lacking in cohesiveness."

- Generally/Actually/Obviously/Basically , : "Actually I am not feeling well."

- "since" "for" , " have been working since four years" " have been working for four years" " have been working since four years ago". , , , "since" "for" .

- 'different- different': We went to different different places in the city in search of a good hotel.

- 'gift', : You are gifting me a new cell phone?

- , : "Does it pain?" "Does it hurt?"

- "I can able to cook" " can cook" - .

- : "Let's go to city" "Let's go to the city"

- 'out of hundred' 'percent': "He got a hundred out of hundred" " got a hundred" " got a one hundred percent".

"Your good name please?": "What is your name?", .

"That is besides the point"

- "Deadly", "high-tech", "sexy" , ."Deadly" , "hi-fi" - "sexy" - . : "That movie was deadly, yaar; what an action scene!", "Your shoes are hi-fi. Where'd you get them?" "That's a sexy car, man!"

- "Hello, What do you want?" , .

- "What a nonsense/silly you are!" "Don't be doing such nonsense anymore.": nonsense/silly ( ).

- "pindrop silence" , , , .

- "back", "ago", , " met him five years back", "I met Mm five years ago." ( ).

- "freak out" , "let's go to the party and freak out."

- , -, , tJee'Tji", "Please call a taxi for Gupta-ji."

- "Shree"/"Shri" (Mr.) "Shreemati'T'Shrimati" (Ms./Mrs.): Shri Ravi Shankar or Shreemati Das Gupta.

- "Shree"/ "Shreemati", "Saahib" (Mr.) "Begum" (Mrs.) (), "Welcome to India, Smith-saahib." "Begum Sahib would like some tea."

- "Mr." "Mrs." . : "Jyoti's Mr. stopped by yesterday" "My Mrs. is not feeling well".

- "uncle" "aunty" , , , , , .

- "" (, , ), bhai () "bhaiyya" ( ( ), "man" "dude", "Arey! C'mon, yaar! Don't be such a killjoy!", "Long time no see, bhai." "Ay, bhaiyya! Over here!"

- "Arey!" "Acchha!" , , , "Arey! What a good job you did!", "Acchha, so that's your plan." "Arey, what bad luck, yaar!"

- "oof!" , "Oof! The baby's crying again!"

- "Waah" , , "Waah! Waah! You play the sitar so well!"

- "just" "simply" , . : Q: "Why did you do it?" A: "Simply" "Just I was telling to [sic] him."

- "Lady's finger" " , " ( ).

- "Hotel" "" ( " ") : " ate in the hotel". "Lodge" . "Lodge" i, ( ), a "Hotel" i, .

- "stepney" "stepaney" .

- "specs" ( ).

- "cent percent" "100 ", " got cent percent in maths."

- "centum" 100.

- "sit" "live", : "Where are you sitting?" "Where do you live?"

- "High-End": () ( ).

- n - ( takes n troubles to stay neat).

- "repair"

, "The TV became repair." , : "The TV is repaired and now it is working properly."

  • "stay" "live" "reside at": "Where are you staying?" "Where are you temporarily lodging", a "Where is your residence?"
  • "damn" , , , .

- "healthy" , , "His build is on the healthy side", .

- "my dear", , " is a my dear person." .

- "dear" , "mate" "" /.

- "dress" , , : "She bought a new dress for her son."

- "cloth" , , "waste cloth": "Use that cloth for cleaning."

- "Cloth" "clothe" . "Clothe" "clothes".

- "Shirting and suitings" .

- "Bath" "bathe" . "Bath" , " bath'd in the morning."

, - .

, .

, , , , . , , , . : jungle, bungalow, bandana, mango, pyjama; , : karma, dharma, pundit, guru, swami.

( ) :

Batchmate, batch-mate ( , )

Brinjal ()

Chai ( )

Cousin-brother ( ), cousin sister ( ), , .

Crore (10 )

Eve teasing ( )

Foot overbridge ( )

Godown ()

Himalayan blunder ( )

Lakh (100 )

Masaalah ()

Masti (mastee) (, , )

Nose-screw ( )

Opticals ()

Prepone ( postpone)

Pukka (, )

Scheduled caste (/ , )

Scheduled tribe (/ , )

Would-be (/)

IE. i . IE, ' , ," , . , IE , . , , IE . IE, () , IE. i , .[7;34] IE. , , -: serve + -: server , , , IE servant: They sat round an oily table in the dark hall. Serving boys were shouting menus and bills and were dashing hither and thither. A server came and asked: "What will you have, sir?". "These rules are not for me", the other said. He unhooked the board and landed in to a passing server... The servant hesitated".

IE -ism , : Further Mr. Giri said: "We should remove lock, stock and barrel com-munalism, parochialism, regionalism and casteism, if we desire to make India great". A wind of change was blowing. It would not be lingualism, narrow groupism or casteism that would determine the results in the next general elections.

-st communalist, groupist, : Regionalism has occasionally flared up in Assam, but it is to the credit of the people of Assam that the avowed regionalists have never earned the confidence of people. , , , : sitarist (, -), palmist (, ): There -will also be a renowned palmist who will predict your future...

, ( , ) -hood, -ship , IE , humanhood, ear-thhood, heavenhood, : Rose of Bliss, firesweet, seven tinged with the ecstasies seven. Leap up in our heart of humanhood; Bridge our earthhood and heavenhood, make deathless the children of Time. freeship, . - Thus even the vice chancellor of Universities have been heard to speak of "freeships"for free studentships.

-hood -ship , . , sahib, , , -hood : How proud they thought they would feel carrying this symbol of sahibhood in their luggage, going, home to Kangra or Hoshiarpur. -ship , beebee - , , guru , , Bahadur , -beeship, guruship, Bahadurship, : Amru has realised that he had overstepped the priviledges of guruship by insisting on more gifts and more starch on his clothes. The ladies carry their burra bibiship into the steamers when they go to England.

IE -dom, : Baboodom baboo , , , ohuprasjdom chuprasi ': The abstract nouns which are derived from the word "baboodom" and "babooism" are also terms of contempt.

IE , , -ism, : goondaism goonda , : In spite of the heavy hand of repression, goondaism and harassment, the workers have remained united and determined, ; babooism, bhai-bhaism, banianism, Vedaism, colonialism, Congressism, Gandhism , .

IE - , lathial , ( lathi): Violent attacks by the lathials took place in a few more places.

-ed IE dhoti, sari, kulah , , : dhotied dhoti ' ' : ... he had waited for a minute outside and Indian restaurant and seen a number of half-naked dhotied black men; ... she would be reared in luxury: bejewelled and saried like a princess, she would move proudly in society...

IE i , , , -wallah, -man. wallah, , , , , : is, as you say, Buta Singh's son. And though his hob-nobings with these Gandi-capped Congresswal-lahs and Red Flag wallahs, Buta Singh knows what is going on in the city and whom to watch. So he made a plot and attacked some policewallahs.

khana (khan, connah) i, , . , , jail IE jail -khana ': most convicts there are but two worlds which are of any consequence the ,Jail-khana" as the prison is called and the "duniya".

, -man, -like : ... without a hard word the jutkaman flicked the whip on.the horses haunch and it moved forward; Many hold special sessions dressed in Sadhu-like robes and go into trances chanting Hindu mantras.

, , - anti-, : The movement for radical amendments to ceiling laws and the assualts on the lands owned by ex-za mindars, ex-princes, ex-jagirdars and monopolists shall begin on the 9-th August; Fed up with disruptive and anti-kisan policies of the CP.\\ most of its followers... have come over to CPL .

- , . : Several persons including a minor girl in a nearby panshop were seriously injured in the lathicharge and 30 pe'rsons have been arrested by the police (panshop pan , , BrE shop; lathicharge lathi BrE charge). : lathi-blow, Jutka-driver, juggi-dweller, rupee-note, coolie-trot.

IE , : The sari-clad hostess bent sideways and picked up a pillow that had slipped on the floor carpet; Our dhoti-clad fellows are ten times worse...

IE . , : At street corners, at the bathing-ghat, it was the subject of discussion and eager chatter; And, behind the barn, the brook moved swiftly by the queer for of the -windmill, bubbling like a hill-nullah . .

IE. , - , , .: The Governor of Punjab, who is at present holidaying at Simla, is coming back to Chandigarh; Mr. S. began to settle the ikka driver who unlike the Bombay ghariwallahs, immediately accepted what he was given, salaamed, and went off; They had taken permission to hold a meeting and were about to send their leaders including eminent MPs, to hand over a memorandum to the Speaker where the police teargassed and lathicharged them.

, IE, , ompound, ', IE compound , ; tank , , IE tank , ; chit , IE chit , , .

, . , , , ; carpet-snake, snake-god, worshipper, sacrificial fire, sacred water, sacred thread, brother anointing ceremony, caste mark, caste-dinner, lea/plate,' leaf-pot, leaf-cup, head-cloth, nose-ring, cow-dust, civil-station, hill-station. cousin IE cousin-sister, cousin-brother, i '.

IE , , - [8;103]. , leaf ", ", ", ": The plantain leaf was handed to me, the rice placed on top, then the cup of dhal, " He ate his dinner silently ruminating over it. His wife, stooped over his leaf to serve him. leaf ' .

IE , ' - . . , , . : INC Indian National Congress, CPI Communist Party of India, AITUC All Indian Trade Union Council.

IE , - . IE , : BrE to eat dirt IE to eat dust; BrE/or a rainy day IE for a lean day, BrE flesh and blood IE flesh and bone; BrE with one's heart in one's mouth IE with one's life in in one's mout.

IE rice bowl , begging bowl , , , . - , : to be tied a wife's sari-end; not to have an anna to bless oneself with; not to care a nickel anna .

: by fits and starts IE with fits and starts; BrE on the spur of the moment BrE at the spur of the moment.

- . .


2.2


. , , , ( ) , - . . , " ( ), , " . ( ) , .. (1898): " " . , " . , " : .

" . , , , , " .

, , , , , , , , . John Lawler, - , - [3, 95]:

: am liking it very much.

: I like it very much.

,

: She performs many charities.

: She gives away a lot in charity.

: Let us discuss about this.

: Let us discuss this.

:

They did it, no?/He is here, isn't it?/She closed the door, did she?

:

They did it, didn't they?/He is here, isn't he?/She closed the door, didn't she?

: My all closets are empty.

: My closets are all empty.

: "Didn't you take Rita to school?"

: Yes, I didn't

: No, I didn't

: Tom was not there but.

: But Tom was not there.

: I only told her to do that.

: I told her to do that.

of

: She had so much of work to do that....

: She had so much work to do that....

: Let's go out for some ice-cream-vice-cream.

: Let us go out for some ice-cream (ice-cream and stuff).

actually/obviously/generally/seriously

: Seriously, she is a good person.

: She is a good person.

: What is your good name?

: What is your name?

, "

: simply forwarded the mail to my boss.

: I just forwarded the mail to my boss.

, .

John Lawler , . . i , -:

  1. - : What you would like to buy?
  2. : It is the nature's way. Office is closed today.
  3. one i : gave me one book.
  4. : Lila is having two books. You must be knowing my cousin-brother Mohan.
  5. , : bought some small small things. Why don't you give them one one piece of cake?
  6. : is coming, yes? She was helping you, no?

7. Isn't it : They are coming tomorrow, isn't it?

  1. : It was God's order itself It was God's own order, They live like that only That is how they live.
  2. Present Perfect Simple Past: I have bought the book yesterday.

.

, , : "...ninth Schedule of the Constitution", : "eleven lakh acres of most fertile land in East and West Godovary", a " Government of India", " Assamese language ", Mongolian language"; " United States ", "Soviet Union" .

, , IE , : "The Prime Minister Morarji Desai".

, : " three and half lakh engineering workers "; " giving free hand to monopolists in increasing their prices "; " delegates from all states took active part in the discussion". , , , [ 8,106].


BrE

IE

collect documentation

collect for documentation

comprise five states

comprise of five states (nop.:consist of smth)

discuss the case

discuss about/on the case

reach a village

reach to/up to a village

investigate the affair

investigat into the affair (nop. : look into smth)


IE , , :


BrE

IE

a mount to Rs.37 crore

a mount Rs. 37 crore

deal with the subject

deal the subject

appeal to the court

appeal the court


IE . , "to charge "with ", IE : " charged them of planning..." "They charged him for theft". :

BrE

IE

attach importance to

attach importance

congratulate on

congratulate for

complain of

complain about.


"village Pathada", "in village Kando " , "of".

" both . . . and " IE " both . . . as well as ". : "both in the rural as well as agricultural sectors. "

IE " as" , : "to elect as ", " to call as ", " to consider as " : " That day is rightfully considered as the day of liberation "; " it came to be called as the scheme for involuntary separation"; "...after being elected as a member of... "

IE "that (those) " -. : "The CPM leaders insisted on our breaking all relations with the Congress, including (that) in Kerala, as a precondition "; " One question that struck me was of adult education". - "that" , : "Its percentage of votes is lower even than the Congress".

IE , : You have no objections? Yes, I haven't ( No, I haven't), : You aren't coming, are you? Yes, I am not coming.

, , ; , "train" IE "she", , , "gar/" .

, . , , , , " devaputra " ( ) , IE : "The road is very bad. " (IE) "This is a very bad road ." (); :" cardamon-field Ramachandra "; " that - house people"; "corner-house Moorthy" ; "iron-shop Imam khan"; " gap-tooth sidaya "; "key-bunch "; "godlove " .

, , , - i . , . , "God of small things", "A suitable boy", "Satanic verses", "Train to Pakistan", "An equal music", "The namesake", . . , - . . , , " . . , - , . , , . - .

, , , , , , , , . , . ( ) , AM, IE.

2.3


. , ' .

Bebeau, Bass, Tonjes, Lombardi, Ramstad, Potter, Little, Moon, Contraras, Rosier Halm , AM .

Bebeau , , .

Scoon and Blanchard , , 142 - -, , 82% AM .

Bass and Tonjes , , , . 7% , , .

, , 80 , '.

Ramstad and Potter 21 . , , .

Downey 60 . , ' , '.

Little, Moon and Contraras , 47 ' 61 . 20 .

Rosier and Halm , 5000 0,7% . 2,4% 6 .

, , . Levensky , 1700 , , [6;54]. 1942 Havighurst and Hilkevitch. I .

" .

Witherspoon , 225 . 356200 "to go "go "running "walking. , , , .

Zints , AM - , . , 6 , - , [42; 209].

, , . . , , .

. , ( ), . , . .

, . - , .

, .

IE , [1; 84].

: , . . . .

, AM , , AM .

, , , - ,

Cook Sharp, , , ' , , . , , , . . , AM, , . [9; 21].

. , , // //, // /d/ /k/ /g/ , , //, AM, - /t/. . .

, .

-, , . .

-, - , , AM.

-, AM , .

, . , , , , . .

, AM. Wolfram , [5; 28]. , ' . , "buyed "bought, "brang "brought, "spended - "spent.

Cook Sharp , , -(e)s, Past Participle (e)d, , "-ing, - [4; 18].

AM , (he, she, it) , .

. , "They found one in dumpyard, "Jack has white lamb.

Young , "the "a, "an, " .

Zints, , , . ,

Mary was home sick - "Mary was homesick

Was that the green house ? - "Was that the greenhouse

, AM, . Cook Sharp :

Joe taked at his grandmother (Joe talked to his grandmother) "Harry's father aimed the bear and shot him (Harry's father aimed at(for) the bear and shot him).

. :

go at store

go to store

go store

. , "toward the mountain - "mountain it toward.

, . .

-, AM --- . - - - . , .

McCarty , - (yavapai) ", "Where are you going. : "Where going you.

-, , . , "the girl drank the water ma "the water was drunk by the girl. "The girl was droved by the water, "The water drawn the girl. -.

, - , ' . (the Dolch World List) .

Kersey Fabja the Dolch World List , . , 2/3 , , the Dolch World List, 1/3 .

Clifton, , , Cm Junior high school, , . .

, Phillionand Galloway, , AM [7; 118]. , , , , . :

-, , , . , "leaf " . . , "medicine bundle () , .

-, . , , "to howl, "to vibrate, "to growl;, "roots-embrace -bracelet, "hymn, "miracle.

:

O'Neale Dolores (Papago Language) . . , . , , [7; 131].

', Young , - ' "have to "make to.

: -:

must go thereIt is only good that I shall go there

I make the horse runThe horse is running for me

, , . , - .



, , , . .

IE ' - . . (1614 - XVIII .) ' . ( XVIII - XIX .) - , i . (1765 - ) " " , .

- ' AM , .

IE ' . , , . , .

IE . , , , , .

IE , -.

IE AM, .

, , , , ' AM . .

, , , , , .

IE .



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1


[IE].


2


:

, , , (, 1986; 159)

- ,

( (1996; 940))


3


(, , )

i

( - )


4


( - 1986: 130)

;

, ;

, , i ;

, .


5


( )

(1614 )

-


(18 )

- -

( (1772 - 1833)

( 1770 .))


(1765 )

-

( )


6



                                


( )

( , )

22 i

( )


- , , .


Hinglish

( + )

Taglish

( + )


7


IE

1. :

  • : to serve + er = server (, servant)
  • : + prince = exprince ( , former prince)
  • : sari + clad = sari-clad ( )
  • : man + tras = mantras ( )

2. : leaf- 1) ;

2) ;

3. : head cloth ()

4. : sari ()

guru ()


8


IE:

1. :

"I am liking it very much".

2.:

"Let us discuss about this."

3. :

"They did it, no?/He is here, isn't it?/She closed the door, did she?"

4. :

"My all closets are empty."

5. :

"Let's go out for some ice-cream-vice-cream."

: 1