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: [1]   Word-212799.doc : 1


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1) , "- ( , , ). , "to buy a pig in a poke , (. . " . a poke " ( "sack), . , , .

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. . , : "The way in which the words are put together is often odd, illogical or even grammatically incorrect

[19, c.4].

, I am good friends with him (" ֻ) , , . I , I am a good friend with him , . I am good friend of his, .

3) , , , :

to be born with the silver spoon in ones mouth;

to go through thick and thin.

4) , , [20, .144].

:

to bring the house down;

to take it out on someone.

-, : "We can say that an idiom is a number of words which, taken together, mean something different from the individual words of the idiom when they stand alone [19, c.4].

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-, , . (, nothing loath, be that as it may, foot the bill, long time no see, guess what?), , .

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1.1, , - , , , . , " : "Every language has phrases or sentences that cannot be translated literally. Many clichs, proverbs, slang phrases, phrasal verbs, and common sayings offer this kind of problem. A phrase or sentence of this type is usually said to be idiomatic. This Dictionary is a collection of the idiomatic phases and sentences that occur frequently in American English [20, .7].

" .: , (sentences) : , , , (common sayings), : . , , : " , . - . , . -, . , , , , [25, c.11].

. . "English idioms and how to use them (1983) . : " " . , ( ) . ., , , , , , , . , , . , , , , [16, c.5].

. , , . .. - - . . - " [22, c. 644].

.. [6, c. 65], , " - . - , , , , . . , , - , , . .

" - - .. [15, c.15] , , , , , , . , , :

) : a hot potato drop something like a hot potato;

) :

strike while the iron is hot;

) : a stab in the back to stab someone in the back;

) : Aunt Thomasina Uncle Tom;

) hell on earth heaven on earth;

) - to be nuts (to fall off ones nut);

) gild the lily gild refined gold and paint the lily.

, , :

through thick and thin (through thicket and thin wood).

-: " :

it goes without saying cela va sans dire.

, , , ( ", " ) [15, c.15].

., - - [23, c.143-144]. , , , ( dark horse - " , - " roaring forties - " - " -). " (to come right with a bang - , , big time - , , to be on the (water) wagon - , , lone wolf - , , ).

, : , . , , , , . , . " [3, .173] .

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: to bag -"to take possession of something without first asking permission, to bomb -"to fail something, knockout -"a very attractive person or thing, lemon -"anything defective or unsatisfactory.

-

-

-

: Dutch soup -"something very easy, topull ones leg -"to deceive somebody, to jump down ones throat -"to criticize severely.

: to pay the piper -"to pay for ones mistakes, to say a mouthful -"to say something of a significant or shocking nature.

: to get ones second wind -"to get a second burst of energy, to kill two birds with one stone -"toaccomplish two objectives with one action.

: pat answer -"a prepared reply, shotgun method -"a method in which several solutions are tried at once to see which one might work.

: now and then, to make progress, to take into consideration, in case of, again and again, to make friends.

- : dont count your chickens before they are hatched; the dog returns to his vomit.

- : The more you learn, the more you know; appearances are deceptive.


, " " , . , . , . , . - , . , , , - , , .

, ( -), . , , [1, .57].

" .. .. [116, . 115]. , , : 1) , : apology - "- , : This is an apology for champagne; 2) , : honey - ", ( ); 3) , (), , : bags! - "!, great! - "!, nuts! - "; 4) : twig - ": Do you twig what I am getting at? , : .

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II.


2.1


XX , , ' , , , . , , , . [10].

(i), , , , , - . , , . , , " - , - , " - , , " [14, . 22].

( . publicus - ) , . , . ( ), - (, ), - ( , ), -, [4,.14].

, ' - , , , . . , . , , , - , ( ) [18, . 76].

. . , . - . , , [24].

- , [17, . 11].

- . , [5, . 147].

, - , , , , - , , , , , , , [12, . 109].

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2.2


, . , , .. , , , , , , " , , . .. , " , , , , [13, . 138].

, - (, ) . , , (), [9, . 564].

- , , , , . [9, . 340].

, . - , . . , , , . . - , [13, . 71-72].

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2.2.1

, . , , , . , . -, , : <> This final reinvention of Newsweek left Meachams customers with a choice. They could turn to the Web and get "a different kind of news for free, or they could go to Newsweek and get "a different kind of news for $6 a week. He seemed startled that so many of them turned out to be skinflints. (Commentary/July-August 2010);

Mr Sheridan, who is representing himself, asked Mr Coulson: "Are you the kind of editor who would ensure the stories were watertight or were you slapdash?" Mr Coulson replied: "I would not describe myself as slapdash, it is impossible to go into every story in detail, I trust my staff." (BBCnews/10 December 2010);

She told friends it was very hard being a woman MP in a sea of males, and that she had to do much more to get noticed. But her formidable memory, razor-sharp mind and charismatic speeches soon engendered the respect of her fellow politicians. (The Dominion Post/ 22/08/2010);

She had no school newspaper ideas and neither did she understand how she was going to move about it! The drama queen that she was, she began fretting about how she often is the laughing stock at her school! It was then that her mother, a truly practical and street smart woman, let her in on some secrets in regards to the whole newspaper starting deal, to calm her down. (Homeschooling Programs/August 26, 2010);

: skinflint (), slapdash (, ) , . : razor-sharp (, ") street-smart (, ) .


2.2.2

, , , , , ', , , , , . , , roly-poly (), rubber-stamp (, , ), unmask ( , ), spoonfeed ( , "), skyrocket ( ) , : CHERYL Cole got a fright after a SECOND fan breached security to get close to her.The roly-poly brunette sneaked past bouncers at X Factor London auditions.A show source said: "Everyone was getting the lift up to the judges' changing rooms and then this big girl got in.( The Sun / 26 Jun 2010);

The foreclosure lawyers down in Jacksonville had warned me, but I was skeptical. They told me the state of Florida had created a special super-high-speed housing court with a specific mandate to rubber-stamp the legally dicey foreclosures by corporate mortgage pushers like Deutsche Bank and JP Morgan Chase. (Rollingstone / November 10, 2010);

The Cross River government has vowed to unmask those it described as fifth columnists who were behind last Wednesdays incident at the Margaret Ekpo International Airport in Calabar in which a car driven by one Anieniok Elijah Okon crashed into an Arik Air plane t about to take off from the airport. (Vanguard Newspaper /April 04, 2010);

Flipboard is highly relevant in our current social targeting phenomenon, where corporations are hungry to know our friends and our tastes; where behavioural tracking drives advertising. So why shouldnt our local magazine be tailored exactly to our tastes? We dont need editors to spoon-feed us news - lets have an editorial anarchy! (Idioplatform / July 22nd, 2010);

I have since watched her career skyrocket with outstanding photography published in newspapers and magazines. Leelu is one of the most talented and dedicated photographers working in the industry today. (leeluphotography / Friday 29 August ,2007).


2.2.3

, , . , [6; . 217]. , , , . , , . , . , . , , bottom, buns, backside, behind, - : Why is Walters talking about Hillary Clinton's backside? "It's a little smaller on top and fuller on the bottom," the host of "The View" says. No, that's not a rejected lyric from "Baby Got Back," though the words do refer to a woman's butt. (Salon / Jun 5, 2008);

Mike Myers talks about his latest swinging creation, Austin Powers, and why he likes to flash his buns in public. [Salon / Dec 22, 2010].

", : This chair, this wooden chair, can support the ass of the white man or the crack of the black man, take the downward pressure of a Jewish girl's behind or the butt of a Buddhist adolescent, it can provide comfort for Muslim buns or Mormon backsides, the withered rump of an unemployed man in Nevada struggling to get his kids through high school and needful of a place to sit and think, the plump can of a single mum in Florida desperately struggling to make ends meet but who can no longer face standing, this chair, made from wood felled from the tallest redwood in Chicago, this chair, if only we believed in it, could sustain America's huddled arse (The Observer/Jan 13, 2008).

light-fingered ( ) certifiable (): Lightfingered shoppers who dare to pocket goods from Farmers stores are being stung with a civil fee before they enter a courtroom. (Manawatu Standard / 09/10/2009);

She certainly appeared to be a certifiable maniac last Friday when she announced that she was quitting her governor job because ... well, basically because she's not a dead fish: (Common Dreams / December 22, 2010).


2.2.4

. , , . , birdbrain ( , , ), cakehole (), doormat ( , ), coon (, ), bladdered ( ( , , , ), porker (, "), chickenshit (, ), asshole (, , ) : I wonder who invented the phrase "birdbrain" to describe a stupid person (The Guardian/July 3, 2003); <> as I discover later, the way to a womans heart is definitely through her cakehole (The Times/Feb 21, 2005); Add Ann's 'ansum, savoury, well-seasoned pasties disappearing down my cakehole and the day is filled with serene happiness (TheGuardian/May 6, 2006); We see he is using Mum, treating her with no respect. A strong, confident woman is reduced to a doormat. Its heartbreaking to watch (TheTimes/May 23, 2007); "Words like wog, Paki and coon back then, and chav and pikey today, have a profound effect on our communities," he said (The Guardian, Feb 8, 2008); Mr Farquharson, 57, had told a civil court how officers at Lambeth, South London, called him "a f****** black bastard" and a "f****** coon" (Sunday Mirror/ Feb 2, 2003); Don't get bladdered. Every week brings a new story about women and binge drinking and while many feature scary statistics about liver damage and the like<> (Guardian/Nov 14, 2007); <> helped him get over the shock of seeing a tattooed porker in an England shirt <> (Guardian/Apr 20, 2007); Appalled by the "prohibition industry, he consumed so much forbidden victuals that if he had been able to serve them to his friends at a "Devils picnic every course would have been "guaranteed to offend the safety-conscious, the temperate, the holier-than-thou, the politically correct, the chickenshit (The Times/Feb 16, 2006); The Father was a complete asshole! Never smiled and was super strict with his daughter and Son (Los Angeles Times/Jan9, 2008).


2.2.5

, , , , , , , - , , . , , la-di-da (, ), foul-mouthed ( ), smartypants (, ), softie ( , ), underdog (, , , ), redneck (, ) : Few of them can actually read and they are obsessed with the baloney churned out by la-di-da middle-class women like Jane Austen (Telegraph/July 13, 2003); She was foul-mouthed, noisy, abrasive and direct to the point of rudeness, but she was always great fun to be around (Daily Mail/Sept 12, 2007); "The very plimsolls that you wear will become the height of fashion. Some smartypants will rebrand them as 'trainers' or 'sneakers' and make squillions (Financial Times/Jan 20, 2007); Mr. Ellsworth, whose son, Justin, died in Iraq in 2004, called Mr. Bush ''a big softie'' (New York Times/Nov 10, 2007); "America loves an underdog," Begala said. "Candidates can show their character in defeat." But the Clinton campaign did not appear poised totake the advice (Washington Post/Apr 1, 2008).


2.2.6 ()

() " -. , [21, . 179; 70]. , . kickback (" ( , ), , , ", ", "), dough (), plant ( ( ) ( ), croak (, ): <> Services Inc., who pleaded guilty to accepting $10,000 in kickbacks for awarding a $4.67 million project to a Kuwaiti subcontractor<> (The Baltimore Sun/Feb 12, 2008); The pair were accused of taking kickbacks for government contracts (The Boston Globe/Dec 28, 2007); Many agency leaders were swept out in the midst of a federal investigation into allegations of a kickback scheme. No kickbacks were proved (Los Angeles Times/July 28, 2007); ''Now Al has to get out there and energize people to raise a ton of dough.'' (The New York Times/March 9, 2000); All the early planning went well - the strategy, putting good people in place, raising lots of dough (The Boston Globe/Jan 9, 2008); I just want plenty of dough, happy life, plenty of money (Guardian/July 13, 2005); This is a middle-aged crowd that has earned (or inherited) the dough to shop large at Fashion Island<> (The Los Angeles Times/June 21, 2007); A New York City police officer was indicted yesterday on charges that he lied to a Federal grand jury investigating allegations that a team of officers regularly planted drugs and guns on suspects in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan (The New York Times/Jan 11, 1995); According to media reports, the victim was dragged from his house and shot and a gun was planted on the body (The Guardian/June 3, 2006); Hensley said he had planted an AK-47 assault rifle on the body after Vela had shot Janabi, which he described as a common procedure. James Culp, Vela's civilian defense attorney, said this was the third case he had been involved with in which soldiers had planted weapons on bodies to boost their cases for "kills" in Iraq (The Los Angeles Times/Feb 9, 2008); People need me more than ever. That's why I didn't croak. That's why God saved me (The Chicago Tribune/Feb 10, 2008).

, , , , .


2.2.7

, , . " [24, . 8], , . roly-poly ( ), battleaxe (, ), wallflower (, (, , ), " ), earworm ( ), barfly ( ): There are cartwheeling dancers, roly-poly policemen and a 12ft-tall Big Fisherman who looks like a troll fed on steroids (TheTimes/Dec 26, 2007); The flamboyant star, best known for her infectious laugh, will appear as Opal, the battleaxe aunt of street sweeper Gus (The Sunday Mirror/ March 2, 2008); Sir Ian McAllister, the chairman of Network Rail, was given a good going-over by seasoned battleaxe Gwyneth Dunwoody at the Transport Select Committee yesterday (The Times/Jan 24, 2008); In the 1970s, Coronation Street established all the enduring soap archetypes. From battleaxe to busty barmaid, Grace Dent salutes the influential characters <> (Guardian/July 30, 2005); Joan Fontaine plays the shy young wallflower who attracts the eye of the rich and disturbed Maxim de Winter (The Baltimore Sun/Jan 18, 2008); <> he's not exactly a wallflower when he's healthy (Boston Globe/Jul 1, 2007); Anyone who's ever been a wallflower at a party knows this "social spotlight effect well <> (Guardian/Nov 17, 2007); Bing Crosby's "Christmas in Killarney is a real earworm, too, but I don't mind that so much (Boston Globe/Dec 5, 2007); For example, can a word be an earworm? An earworm is a tune that lodges itself in the brain and will not be moved (The New York Times/Jan 11, 2005); It was a simple tune, the perfect ingredients for an earworm <> (The New York Times/Aug 12, 2003); He is touchy about the drinking, because Lloyd painted him as a barfly (The Sunday Times/Jan 20, 2008); His father Freddie was a motor engineer and enthusiastic barfly <> (The Sunday Mirror/May 8, 2007); Down in the Galleria Caf, oddly, a trio of barflies sat at the bar, staring and silent, like those nighthawks<> (Boston Globe/July 19, 2007).


2.2.8

, [18, . 12]. , , . , , .


2.2.9

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  1. . . / . . // : . . . - . 23 / 2. - . : - " , 2007. - . 55-59.
  2. . . / . . // " : , , . - : . . , 2007. - . 53-54.
  3. .. . . :-, 2006. - 716 .
  4. . // . - 2003. 14(318). - .13-14.
  5. . . - : . - , 1929.- 165 .
  6. .. . - .: - , 1963. - 208 .
  7. .. : , /...- . : -, 2001. - 576.
  8. .. // . . - .: , 1977. - .140161.
  9. .. / . . . .: , , 2005. - 1136
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  11. .. : , , /... - , 1995. - 208 .
  12. .. " - / .. // - : : [ . .., ..].- . : ", 2003.- . 109-132
  13. .. , , : /.. .- , 2001. - 260 .
  14. .. PR- /... - 2- ., . - . : . , 2002. 279.
  15. .. i./ - . - .: " , 1967. - 1260
  16. .. ., . " . - .: , 1983. - .5-6.
  17. .. - XXI : . . . . . : . 10.02.01 / . . . - , 2005.- 31.
  18. .. / .. // .- 2005. - . 8. - . 66-78.
  19. ., . . .: , 1983. - I-VI+266 c
  20. . / . .. - .: , 1991 - 464 .
  21. . . / . . // / [. . . . ]. - . : , 1990. - . 564-565.
  22. .. . - .: , 1985. - 160 .
  23. .. . - .: " , 1963. - 215 .
  24. .. - /.., . . // . - .-2007. - : vestnik/ novyeIssledovaniy/ 27_2/
  25. Collins V.H. A Book of English Idioms with Explanations. - London, New-York, Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co., 1960. - 258 p

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