VARIABILITY AS A PROPERTY OF EVALUATION

VARIABILITY AS A PROPERTY OF EVALUATION
Yu.L. Yusupova
In the article the definition of the term «variability of evaluation» is considered from the point of view of the evaluation theory by NA Baturin. Understanding of the evaluation variability is considered in the different approaches, both domestic and foreign authors. It was determined after the analysis of researches that the concept of «variability» entails several meanings: variability refers to the «original position that a person undergoes continuous changes throughout a person's life»; the variability refers to the variety, variability of symptoms, etc; the variability refers to the instability, volatility estimates associated with situational errors; the variability is rate change in response to changes in the object. Generally the variability of evaluation is understood on the one hand, as a property of evaluation on the other hand, as an individual way of evaluation. The article highlighted two components of the variability: personal (evaluative style as the propensity to quickly change the rates when changes appear in the object and / or in the assessment base) and situational (changes of rates under the influence of context (situational factors)). Also it is considered issues of the variability connection with accuracy and adequacy of evaluations.
Keywords: variability, evaluation, attitudes, changes of evaluation.
The term «evaluation variability» was first introduced into the domestic psychology in 1997 by N.A. Baturin for determining a characteristic of assessment, describing their changing over time [4].
In the psychological sciences the concept of «variability» is found in the study of attitudes, constitutionally-typological features, implicit and explicit evaluations and evaluation style. Also it is mentioned in the discussion about stability of personality.
The concept of «variability» is often used when referring to phenomena associated with the study of personality. Thus, the variability is understood to be «the original position that the person is changed at every stage of life» [1].
Dynamics of constancy and variability is one of the oldest philosopho-psychological problems. The authors note that not only characteristics but also individuals have different level of variability [8]. The methodological basis for understanding the psyche continuity is the S.L. Rubinstein concept of Mental as «living process». It was developed in the works of A. Bruslinskii. Personal variability as a problem of the continuum considered in works of O.A Ah-verdova, B.S. Bratus, I.V. Boev, N.N. Volosko-va, A.E. Licko and G.K. Ushakov.
In modern psychology, the study of person constitutional-typological features belonging to a standards range and their differential differ-
ences of constitutional-typological abnormal variability is relevant. There were confirmed in the works of Russian and foreign scientists that the consistency level of different personality traits varies, as well as individuals have different variability level, but at the same stability and variability of the individual are required for the well-being and success of the individual.
It was emphasized the importance of the person relationship to the environment in the «psychology of relationships». V.N. Myasish-chev in his concept consider the time factor as important for analyze the relation. Consideration of the relationship in the projection on the time axis is a consideration of the relationship formation and dynamics. Relation that arose during individual development remains unchanged; it is constantly changing based on new experiences. Every relationship arises and develops in unity with other relationships, so changing the one change all the other [3].
The variability of the relationship of personality is the rule, not the exception, and the variability of the various relationships does not quite the same. Relationships can be stable and unstable, ranging from instant situational lability to high stability. Relationships are included in the surface layers of the individual structure and are continually changing. And the closer to the core of the personality, the relationship is more static.
Actually, the variability of the evaluation was studied in the study of attitudes. The variability of attitudes is the process of changes of the individual pre-existing attitudes.
It is noted two aspects of attitudes change: natural dynamics that is the processes of generation, fixing, updating, and elimination and focused nature of the impact. In the second one, depending on who initiates change, there are two fundamentally different situations: the changing of own attitude, which is a component of training programs and psychotherapy and changing of others attitude, when the impact has a foreign individual. Often he is acting without the consent of the attitudes subject.
The degree of attitudes variability depends on the level of disposition complexity: the more complex the object in relation to which there is a disposition, the more stable it is. [2]
There are many models explaining the changes of attitudes in two major theoretical orientations - behavioral and cognitivioral.
The principle of learning is used as an explanatory principle for understanding the attitudes change in behaviorist oriented social psychology. According to this principal attitudes vary dependent on how the reinforcements organized [3].
F. Haider, H. Newcomb, L. Festinger, Charles Osgood, P. Tannenbaum give the explanation of the social attitudes change in the cognitive tradition [1]. The attitude change when the mismatch occurs in the individual cognitive structure, for example, negative and positive position on an object. The stimulus for the attitudes change is the individual need in restoring of cognitive accord and orderly perception of the external world.
Foreign researchers have addressed the issue of evaluation variability in the study of affective evaluations and affective priming. According to the model of B. Gavronski and B. Bodenhazena change of affective evaluations can be carried out through short-term changes in the structure of the association, either through changes in the basic structure of stable association [5, 12].
In studies of Gavronski B., R. Petty, R. Ry-dell and others it was studied patterns of implicit and explicit evaluations. It was found that im-
plicit evaluations vary slowly in contrast to rapid changes of explicit estimates in response to the information, opposite to attitude [9, 11].
K. Ranganah and B. Nozek found that the opposite effect is possible in education, rather than changing the associative representations. These studies suggest that the newly obtained information about the person quickly generalizes to the group on implicit level, while the level of generalization on explicit level occurs only within a few days [2, 10].
In addition, the intuitive rates and emotional responses are often stable, so the object or situation evaluated in a certain way and emotionally reacted cause the same rate or emotion. Moreover, the evaluation of the object and the emotional response tend to generalization -they are transported to the whole class of objects.
Evaluation variability of estimates has also been studied as part of research following the assessment of style on the empirical level. Variability is understood as an individual estimation method, which characterize the tendency to rapidly change the estimates (from varying degrees to the valence change from one mark to another), or save them in first version during the changes occur in the object and/ or in evaluation base.
In theory of N.A. Baturin variability is a mandatory attribute of relations evaluation reflection. Variability associated with the fact that the internal structure of evaluation base is multidimensional, poorly organized «scale» or partly overlapping set of scales. This leads to some inconsistency rate of the same object in various situations. [4]
Evaluation reflects the relationships that are under change: and inanimate objects, and people, and the society are variable over time by nature; the evaluation base and the actual subject with all its individual characteristics are also variable.
Formation of evaluation base is important for the evaluation process. Series of experiments conducted by Lingli J. and T. Ostrom, confirm that firstly person must to process the information and create a construct, which further facilitates the evaluation [7].
Evaluation base, like all mental constructs are in constant development. They very by assimilating new information and new experience of interaction with objects of the same class as the evaluation subject, or with things one needs. When forming the evaluation basis for the complex objects is more likely the errors cause, which will lead to distorted inadequate rates [4].
It was determined that the concept of «va-riability» has several meanings:
1. Variability refers to the «original position that a person undergoes continuous changes throughout a person's life».
2. The variability refers to the variety, variability of symptoms, etc.
3. The variability refers to the instability, volatility estimates associated with situational errors.
4. The variability is rate change in response to changes in the object.
Overall variability means on the one hand, a property evaluation on the other hand, a method for estimating individual. We can distinguish two components of variability: the personal (evaluative style) and situational (evaluation changes under the influence of context (situational factors).
Based upon the foregoing, the evaluation variability is the common property of all kinds of assessments to modify the severity of the assessed property due to changes in the assessment of the subject, based on evaluation in the process of comparison, and the form of expression evaluation.
Speaking about the extent of variation and its relationship with the individual adaptability, it is important to understand that on the one hand, a sense of stability and self-identity of another - an important condition of well-being of man and the establishment of normal relations with other people, on the other hand, an important role in understanding the maturity of the individual play variability of behavior, readiness to change.
That is, variability and adaptability are of no less value and vital importance, than the constancy of human behavior. They are valuable evidence of the ability of man - his ability to adapt to the changing conditions of life, to
change you as a person; if this is should be the bridge. Therefore, the variability in certain cir-cum stances should be viewed as a positive personal property, defining its development.
However, there is instability of the person as excessive malleable and eastern human circumstances of the situation, the influence of other people; it manifests in it possible that the behavior of an individual plays a substantial role to the account of concrete terms, taking into account the situation.
Estimated phenomena affect different processes of adaptation of the individual. For example, cognitive evaluation of traumatic situation is a major factor in adaptation [4].
It is important to note that these profound changes in attitudes of the person, if they do occur, causing significant changes in other ways.
A person can deteriorate or change, if her attitudes to people to labor or to collective are changed. Only the stability and permanence of active relationships allows the individual to maintain their own safety and withstand the impacts of the environment, to overcome the resistance of the external environment, to deal with obstacles and achieve their goals, to carry out the implementation of their intentions.
Person need for the organization of their life not only and not so much an objective and accurate knowledge about the reality and themselves, but also subjective and relative knowledge. Biased knowledge about everything needed to select from the variety of the world that will better suit the needs that best fits the physical abilities of a person at a given time and the fact that it improves social relations. That is, an individual need knowledge about the variation relationship. Thus, the estimated form of knowledge allows a person to maintain the inner balance and balance in its relations with the outside world.
In addition, many researchers confirm, that any style participate in the adaptation process, which may have varying degrees of effectiveness. Sustainable methods of estimating preference contribute to a more rapid flow of incoming information structuring and thereby provide a general for all people desire to find order in everything. Increasing subjective judgment that occurs during such an adaptation leads to a cer-
tain degree of distortion of reality, but it is a necessary component of the overall system of regulation humans.
Furthermore, according to many researchers, any style takes part in the adaptation, which can have varying degrees of effectiveness [6]. Sustainable methods of estimating contribute to a more rapid structuring of incoming information and thereby provide a general for all people desire to find order in everything. Increasing of subjective judgment that occurs during such an adaptation leads to a certain degree of reality distortion, but it is a necessary component of the overall human regulation system.
Thus for each individual method of estimation are stable structures convenient for the individual cognitive-affective processing, as well as stable personality structure. Therefore, despite the fact that the estimates, influenced by the style, are more subjective and distorted reality perception, they provide a consistent job of management parts and can create the preconditions for the formation of adaptation that are most effective in terms of the internal environment.
On the basis of these studies, the high variability is difficult to attribute to the factors contributing to the adequacy and accuracy. Rates of people are unpredictable, inconsistent and are likely to reflect the situational reactions of the subject. However, the low variability results in the problem - stereotyped rates, which manifests itself in the tendency to «hang tags» and ignore the changes taking place in the object (the situation).
Thus, the variability of the estimates as a stylistic feature can be attributed to factors that have an impact on the adequacy and accuracy of the estimates.
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Yulia L. Yusupova, lecturer of the chair «Psychological diagnostics and Counseling», South Ural State University, hopeup@gmail.com.
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ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ КАК СВОЙСТВО ОЦЕНОК
Ю.Л. Юсупова
В статье рассмотрено определение термина «изменчивость оценок» с точки зрения концепции оценки и оценивания Н.А. Батурина. Рассмотрено понимание изменчивости оценок в рамках различных подходов как отечественных, так и зарубежных авторов. В рамках анализа исследований было определено, что в понятие «изменчивость» вкладывается несколько значений: изменчивость понимается как «исходное положение о том, что личность претерпевает непрерывные изменения на протяжении всей жизни человека»; под изменчивостью понимается разнообразие, вариабельность признаков и др.; под изменчивостью понимается неустойчивость, непостоянство оценок, связанное с ситуативными ошибками; под изменчивостью понимается изменение оценок в ответ на изменения в объекте. В целом изменчивость оценок понимается, с одной стороны, как свойство оценок, с другой стороны, как индивидуальный способ оценивания. В статье выделяется две составляющие изменчивости оценок: личностная (оценочный стиль как склонность быстро менять оценки при появлении изменений в объекте и/или в оценочном основании) и ситуативная (изменения оценок под влиянием контекста (ситуативных факторов)). Кроме того, рассматриваются вопросы связи изменчивости оценок с точностью и адекватностью оценок.
Ключевые слова: изменчивость, оценка, аттитюды, изменение оценок.
Юсупова Юлия Леонидовна, ст. преподаватель кафедры «Психологическая диагностика и консультирование», Южно-Уральский государственный университет, hopeup@gmail.com.
Поступила в редакцию 10 апреля 2013 г.